Professor Andy Young
Academic and Employment Profile
2005-present Director of Research, Liverpool John Moores University
2003-2005 Head of Research, Liverpool John Moores University (0.5 post).
2002-2004 Deputy to the Director, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University.
1999-present Professor of Applied Plant Sciences, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University.
1994-1999: Reader in Plant Sciences, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University.
1989-1994: Senior Lecturer, School of Biological and Earth Sciences,
Liverpool John Moores University.
1989: AFRC Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield.
1986-1989: SERC Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Biochemistry, University of Liverpool
1986: SERC Postdoctoral Research Assistant, Department of Botany, University of Liverpool.
1985: Marine Officer, Nature Conservancy Council
1981-1984: SERC Research Student, Department of Botany, University of Liverpool (PhD awarded 1984).
1977-1981: 1st.Class BSc. (Hons) Marine Biology, Heriot-Watt University.
Professor Young acts as a reviewer for the following:
- Journals: Journal of Experimental Botany, Microbiology, Journal of Plant Physiology, Journal of Comparative Physiology, Scienta Marina, Journal of Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, FEBS letters, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, Phycologia, Journal of Phycology, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, European Journal of Phycology, New Phytologist, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Environmental Pollution and Plant Physiology.
- Grant applications: United States Department of Agriculture (Small Business Innovative Research Program), The British Council, NERC and BBSRC. I was approved as a reviewer for the EC Framework V programme.
- International Carotenoid Society (1999 (inaugural year) – 2005); former Council member and Society Secretary; Elected Chair of 14th Intl. Symposium on Carotenoids (stepped down from these roles in January 2005 due to career changes)
- British Cacti and Succulent Society (1996-present; currently member of local branch committee, elected Nov. 2002)
- Cactus and Succulent Society of America (2002-present)
List of Publications
Symonds, R., Caris-Veyrat, C., Kelly, M.S. and Young, A.J. Carotenoids in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: occurrence of 9’-cis echinenone as the dominant carotenoid in gonad colour determination. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 148:432-444. (DoI: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.c.bpb.2007.07.12)
Hédoin, H., Pearson, J., Day, J.G., Phillip, D., Young, A.J. and Hall, A.J. (2006) Porphyridium cruentum A-408 and Planktothrix A-404 retain their capacity to produce biotechnologically exploitable metabolites after cryopreservation. Journal of Applied Phycology In Press (Published on-line April 2006: DOI: 10.1007/s10811-005-9007-5)
Phillip, D.M. and Young, A.J. (2006) Preferential inhibition of the lycopene -cylcase by the substituted triethylamine compound MPTA in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 163:383-482.
El-Agamey, A., Lowe, G.M., McGarvey, D.J., Mortensen, A., Phillip, D.M., Truscott, T.G. and Young, A.J. (2004) Carotenoid Radical Chemistry and Antioxidant/Pro-oxidant Properties. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 430: 37-48 (invited review)
Young, A.J., Phillip, D. and Lowe, G.L. (2004) Carotenoid antioxidant activity. Chapter 5. In: Carotenoids in Health and Disease (Krinsky, N.I., Mayne, S.T. and Sies, H., eds.) Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 105-126.
Lowe, G.L., Vlismas, K. and Young, A.J. (2003) Carotenoids as prooxidants? Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 24: 363-9. (ISSN: 0098-2997)
White, D.A., Moody, A.J., Serwata, R.D., Bowen, J., Soutar, C., Young, A.J. & Davies, S.J. (2003) The degree of carotenoid esterification influences the absorption of astaxanthin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Nutrition 9: 247-251. (ISSN: 1353-5773)
Young, A.J., Phillip, D. and Hashimoto, H. (2002) Ring-to-chain conformation may be a determining factor in the ability of carotenoids to bind to the bulk light-harvesting complex of plants. Journal of Molecular Structure, 642: 137-145. (ISSN: 0022-2860)
Wilkinson, D.M., Sherrat, T.N., Phillip, D.M., Wratten, S,D., Dixon, A.F.G. and Young, A.J. (2002) The adaptive significance of autumn leaf colours. Oikos, 99: 403-408. (ISSN: 0030-1299)
Rodrigues, M.A., Strbac, D., Young, A.J., dos Santos, C.P. and Hall, D.O. (2002) A smaller and impaired xanthophyll cycle make the deep-sea macroalga Laminaria abyssalis (Phaeophyceae) highly sensitive to daylight: when compared to shallow-water Laminaria digitata. Journal of Phycology, 38: 939-947. (ISSN: 0022-3646)
Phillip, D., Hobe, S., Molnar, P., Paulsen, H., Hashimoto, H. and Young, A.J. (2002) The binding of xanthophylls to the bulk light-harvesting complex of photosystem II of higher plants: a specific requirement for carotenoids with a 3-hydroxy-ß-end group. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277: 25160-15169. (ISSN: 1083-351X)
Gomes, E. Dias, J., Silva, P., Valente, L., Empis, J., Gouveia, L., Bowen, J. and Young, A.J. (2002) Utilization of natural and synthetic sources of carotenoids in the skin pigmentation of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). European Food Research and Technology, 214: 287-293. (ISSN: 1438-2377)
Clarkson, N., Jones, K.O and Young, A.J. (2002) Modelling of a continuous algal production system using intelligent methods. In: Algae and their Biotechnological Potential (Eds. F. Chen and Y. Jiang), Kluwer Academic Publishers (ISBN: 1-4020-0162-2) (refereed conference proceedings)
Hashimoto, H., Yoda, T., Kobayashi, T. and Young, A.J. (2002) Molecular structures of carotenoids as determined by MNDO-AM1 molecular orbital calculations. Journal of Molecular Structure, 604: 125-146. (ISSN 0022-2860)
Jones, K.O., Clarkson, N. and Young, A.J. (2001) Modelling of an algal production system using intelligent methods. In: D. Dochain and M. Perrier (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Applications in Biotechnology, Quebec, Canada, June 2001, Elsevier Science. (refereed conference proceedings)
Rosevear, M.J., Young, A.J. and Johnson, G.N. (2001) Growth conditions are more important than species origin in determining leaf pigment content of British plant species. Functional Ecology, 15: 474-480. ISSN 0269-8463
Bowen, J., Soutar, C., Sewerta, R.D., Lagocki, S., White, D.A., Davies, S.J. and Young, A.J. (2002) Utilisation of (3S,3’S)-astaxanthin acyl esters in pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture Nutrition, 8: 59-68. ISSN 1353-5773
Young, A.J. and Lowe, G. (2001) Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 385: 20-27. (Invited Review) ISSN 0003-9861
Mendes-Pinto, M.M., J-Raposo, M.F., Bowen, J., Young, A.J. and Morais, R. (2001) Evaluation of different cell disruption processes on encysted cells of Haematococcus pluvialis: effects on astaxanthin recovery and implications for bio-availability. Journal of Applied Phycology, 13: 19-24. ISSN 0921-8971
Frank, H.A., Bautista, J.A., Josue, J.S. and Young, A.J. (2000) On the mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching in green plants: The energies of the lowest excited singlet states of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin. Biochemistry, 39: 2831-2837.
Orset, S. and Young, A.J. (2000) Low light promotes synthesis of 9-cis ß-carotene in the microalgal Dunaliella salina. Plant Physiology 122: 609-617.
Rosevear M.J., Johnson G.N. and Young A.J. (1999) The pigment composition of plants grown under differing light conditions. In: Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Vol III pp. 2183-2186, (Garab, G., ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Orset, S.,Leach, G.C, Morais, R. and Young, A.J. (1999) Spray-drying of ß-carotene-rich Dunaliella salina – effects on carotenoid content and isomer composition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47: 4782-4790.
Woods, J.A., Young, A.J. and Bilton, R.F. (1999) ß-Carotene enhances hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human hepatocellular HepG2 cells. FEBS Letters, 449: 255-258.
Ruban, A.V., Lee, P.J., Wentworth, M., Young, A.J. and Horton, P. (1999) Determination of the stoichiometry and strength of binding of xanthophylls to the photosystem II light-harvesting complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274: 10458-10465.
Orset, S. and Young, A.J. (1999) Low temperature-induced synthesis of -carotene in Dunaliella salina. Journal of Phycology , 35: 520–527.
Harker, M., Berkaloff, C., Lemoine, Y., Britton, G., Young, A.J. Duval, J-C. Rmiki, N.E. and Rousseau, B. (1999) Photoinhibition in marine macroalgae - effects of high light and desiccation on the operation of the xanthophyll cycle. European Journal of Phycology 34: 35-42.
Phillip, D., Molnár, P., Toth, G. and Young, A.J. (1999) Isomerisation of violaxanthin during the operation of the xanthophyll cycle in leaves of Hordeum vulgare. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 49: 89-95.
Ruban, A.V., Phillip, D., Young, A.J. and Horton, P. (1999) Excited state energy level does not determine the differential effect of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin on chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in the isolated light harvesting complex of Photosystem II. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 68: 829-834.
Young, A.J., Ruban, A.V. and Horton, P. (1999) Regulation of the structure and function of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II by the xanthophyll cycle. In: The Photochemistry of Carotenoids (Frank, H.A., Young, A.J., Britton, G. and Cogdell, R.F. eds.), Advances in Photosynthesis Series Vol. 8. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, pp. 271-291.
Frank, H.A., Young, A.J., Britton, G. and Cogdell, R.F. (eds.) (1999) The Photochemistry of Carotenoid. Advances in Photosynthesis Series Vol. 8. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.
Lowe, G. M., Booth, L.A., Bilton, R.F. and Young, A.J. (1999) The dual nature of carotenoids: lycopene and ß-carotene lose their ability to protect HT29 cells from peroxide-mediated DNA damage at high concentrations. Free Radical Research 30: 141-151.
Lowe, G.M., Bilton, R.F. Davies, I. G., Ford, T.C., Billington, D. and Young, A.J. (1999) Carotenoid composition and antioxidant potential in subfractions of human low-density lipoprotein. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 36: 323-332.
Young, A.J. and Hamilton, R.J. (1999) Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy of lipids. In: Spectral properties of Lipids. Chemistry and Technology of Oils and Fats, Volume 2. (Hamilton, R. and Cast, J. eds.) Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. pp. 307-326.
Bialek-Bylka G. E., Sakano, Y., Mizoguchi, T., Shimamura, T., Phillip D., Koyama, Y. and Young A.J. (1998) Central-cis isomers of lutein found in the major light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHCIIb) of higher plants. Photosynthesis Research, 56: 255-264.
Färber, A., Young, A.J., Ruban, A.V., Horton, P. and Jahns, P. (1997) Dynamics of xanthophyll cycle activity in different antenna subcomplexes in the photosynthetic membranes of higher plants. I. The relationship between zeaxanthin conversion and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. Plant Physiology, 115: 1609-1618.
Lowe, G.M., Hulley, C.E., Rhodes, E.S., Young, A.J. and Bilton, R.F. (1998) Free Radical Stimulation of Tyrosine Kinase and Phosphatase Activity in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 245: 17-22.
Ruban, A.V., Phillip, D., Young, A.J. and Horton, P. (1997) Carotenoid-dependent oligomerisation of the major chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex of photosystem II of plants. Biochemistry, 36:7855-7859.
Woods, J.A., Young, A.J., Gilmore, I.T., Morris, A. and Bilton, R.F. (1997) Measurement of menadione-mediated DNA damage in human lymphocytes using the comet assay. Free Radical Research, 26: 113-124.
Young, A.J., Phillip, D., Frank, H.A., Ruban, A.V. and Horton, P. (1997) The xanthophyll cycle and carotenoid-mediated dissipation of excess excitation energy in photosynthesis. Pure and Applied Chemistry; 69: 2125-2130.
Lowe, G.M., Bilton, R.F., Young, A.J., Graham, J.M., Ford, T.C. and Billington, D. (1996) Carotenoid profiles of human plasma lipoproteins. Biochemical Society Transactions. 24: 171S.
Phillip, D., Ruban, A.V., Horton, P., Asato, A. and Young, A.J. (1996) Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II - a systematic study of the effect of carotenoid structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93: 1492-1497.
Ruban, A.V., Young, A.J. and Horton, P. (1996) Dynamic properties of the minor chlorophyll a/b binding proteins of photosystem II; an in vitro model for photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic membrane of green plants. Biochemistry, 35: 674-678.
Young, A.J., Orset, S. and Tsavalos, A.J. (1996) Methods for Carotenoid Analysis. In: Handbook of Photosynthesis (M. Pessarakli, ed.) Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. pp. 597-622.
Young, A.J., Savill, J. and Phillip. D. (1996) Carotenoids in higher plant photosynthesis. In: Handbook of Photosynthesis (M. Pessarakli, ed.) Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. pp. 575-596.
Harker, M., Tsavalos, A.J. and Young, A.J. (1996) Autotrophic growth and carotenoid production in a 30 litre air-lift photobioreactor. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 82: 113-118.
Harker, M. and Young, A.J. (1996) Factors responsible for astaxanthin formation in the chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis. Bioresource Technology, 55: 207-214.
Frank, H.A., Cua, A., Chynwat, V., Young, A.J., Gosztola, D. and Wasielewski, M.R. (1996) The lifetimes and energies of the first excited singlet states of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin: the role of these molecules in excess energy dissipation in algae. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1277: 243-252.
Young, A.J. and Frank, H.A. (1996) Energy transfer reactions involving carotenoids: quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, 36: 3-15. (Invited Review)