Liverpool Skyline

School of Law

Simon Brooman

Simon Brooman

Telephone: 0151 231 3706



I have dedicated my professional life in legal education to developing a culture of scholarship-influenced learning, teaching and curriculum design. I develop, disseminate and publish work often rooted in disciplines such as psychology.

I have a long-standing commitment to Animal Ethics and have been teaching one of the first Animal Law courses in the world since 1994.

My current research interests lie in the areas of Animal Law, leadership of curriculum design in higher education and co-collaborating with the student voice in enhancement projects.


2019, Liverpool John Moores University, UK, PhD Education Research in Legal Education
1997, Manchester University, United Kingdom, PGCE (HE)
Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom, BA (Hons)

Academic appointments

Principal Lecturer - Learning and Teaching Manager, Law, Liverpool John Moores University, 2004 - 2013
Senior Lecturer in Law, Law, Liverpool John Moores University, 1992 - present


Journal article

Brooman SD. 2017. Creatures, the academic lawyer and a socio-legal approach: Introducing Animal Law into the legal education curriculum. Liverpool Law Review, :1-15 DOI Public Url

Nixon S, Brooman SD, Murphy RC. 2017. The sorrow of the struggle or joy of the journey? Seven lessons from an education research writing group Innovations in Practice, :1-5 Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Murphy RC, Nixon S, Brooman SD, Fearon D. 2017. ‘I am wary of giving too much power to students” - addressing the “but” in the principle of staff-student collaboration. International Journal for Students as Partners, 1 :1-16 DOI Public Url

Brooman SD. 2016. In Search of the Missing Ingredient: Religious Slaughter, Incremental Failure and the Quest for the Right to Know. Journal of Animal Ethics, 6(2) :153-163 DOI Public Url

Nixon S, Brooman S, Murphy R, Fearon D. 2016. Clarity, consistency and communication: using enhanced dialogue to create a course-based feedback strategy. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, DOI Author Url Public Url

Brooman SD. 2015. Domestic violence, judicial austerity and the duty of care: Michael and others (FC) (Appellants) v The Chief Constable of South Wales Police and another (Respondents) Journal of Professional Negligence, 33: 3 :195-198 Public Url

Brooman S, Darwent S. 2014. Measuring the beginning: a quantitative study of the transition to higher education STUDIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION, 39 :1523-1541 DOI Author Url

Pimor A, Brooman S. 2014. The student voice in higher education curriculum design: is there value in listening? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, DOI Author Url

Brooman S, Darwent S. 2012. A positive view of first-year undergraduate reflective diaries: Focusing on what students can do Reflective Practice, 13 :517-531 DOI

Brooman S, Darwent S. 2012. 'Yes, as the articles suggest, I have considered dropping out': self-awareness literature and the first-year student STUDIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION, 37 :19-31 DOI Author Url

Brooman S. 2011. Enhancing Student Engagement by Building upon the 'Tectonic Plates' of Legal Education Liverpool Law Review, 32 :109-112 DOI

Brooman SD. 2007. The new age of law relating to animals: a vision of our future treatment of other species Oxford Magazine, No. 265 :1-3

Brooman S, Leege D. 2000. Animal welfare vs free trade - free trade wins: an examination of the animal welfare implications of R v Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food ex p Compassion in World Farming (1998) ANIMAL WELFARE, 9 :81-85 Author Url

Brooman SD. 1999. Bolam revisited: The use of expert evidence in determining the standard of care in medical negligence cases. The Legal Executive, :18-19

Brooman SD. 1998. When Bank Advises Wife: The sliding scale of required action The Legal Executive, :26-27

Brooman SD. 1996. Animals, Rights and Law The Legal Executive, :56-57

Legge D, Brooman SD. 1995. Animal Transportation New Law Journal, 6706 :1131-1133

Brooman SD. 1995. Back to Basics: the duty of care in writing a reference. The Legal Executive, :22-23

Brooman SD. 1994. Water, water, everywhere, especially in Cambridge The Legal Executive, :14-16

Carey P, Milsom C, Brooman S, Jubb E. Student views of assessment and feedback Innovations in Practice, 2 :123-130

Brooman SD. The Creditor, the House, the Misled and her Lover The Legal Executive, :14-15

Sparks P, Brooman SD. Brexit: A New Dawn for Animals Used in Research, or a Threat to the ‘Most Stringent Regulatory System in the World’? A report on the development of a Brexit manifesto for Animals Used in Science. United Kingdom Journal of Animal Law, 1 :1-14 Publisher Url Public Url

Brooman SD. Politics, Law and Grasping the Evidence in Fur Farming: A Tale of Three Continents Journal of Animal Ethics, :1-14 Public Url

Brooman SD. Animal sentience in UK law: does the new clause need claws? United Kingdom Journal of Animal Law, :1-14 Public Url

Brooman S, Stirk S. Who am I?: Using reflective practice and self-determination to redefine ‘employability’ in legal education. Liverpool Law Review: a journal of contemporary legal issues, DOI Public Url

Editorial/letter to the editor

Brooman S. 2011. Special edition: Pedagogical research in legal education. Towards a better structures for student engagement built upon the ‘tectonic plates’ of legal education. Liverpool Law Review: a journal of contemporary legal issues, :109-112 DOI Publisher Url

Brooman SD. Animal Law in the United Kingdom: academics, conferences, A-law and student engagement Liverpool Law Review, :1-6 DOI

Book review

Brooman SD. 1999. Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain Since 1800. Hilda Kean (1998) Animal Welfare, 8 :75-77


Legge , Brooman S. 1997. Law Relating to Animals Cavendish Publishing 9781843141297 DOI


Brooman S. The value of using education research to enhance the curriculum in legal education Carey P. Public Url

Engagement & Impact

Conference organisation:

Conference on Animal Law, Ethics and Policy, Organiser, 2019

Conference on Animal Law, Ethics and Legal Education, Organiser, 2017

Other invited event:

Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Summer School 2019, St Stephen's House, Oxford, Invitation to give Conferecne Paper: The student voice in humane education: Perceptions of an undergraduate Animal Law course.. 2019

External Advisor for new LLB/LLM University of Chichester, Chichester, External adviser for the approval of an LLB Law and a BA / MArts Law with Philosophy and Ethics at the University of Chichester. 2019

Roundtable: Property, Personhood and Rights, St Stephens House, Oxford University, Invited to chair a debate on Property, Personhood and the Rights of Animals. 2018

Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Summer School 2018, St Stephens House, Oxford, Animal Law – how should we teach it? Animal Law is one of the fastest growing subjects in worldwide academia. In the United States, for example, the provision of Animal Law courses doubled between 2010-14. There are courses in many countries from Brazil to France, Australia Pakistan and New Zealand. I teach one of the United Kingdom’s two longest running courses in Animal Law. Over 1000 students have taken the course and, for some it has been life changing: ‘I did religious education at school and it didn’t make me religious. I did physical education and it didn’t make me want to be a runner. But I’ve done Animal Law and it’s changed my life.’ This paper will discuss the ethos of the Animal Law course at Liverpool John Moores University. Specifically, it will address the scientific, historical and philosophical influences that I use to provide a method for critical analysis. The course is less rooted in the minutiae of legal discourse but rather the relationship between humans and animals. What is the impact of scientific discovery regarding the sentience of animals? How does this affect philosophical analysis of current law and where does this lead? Is current legal provision adequate? This presentation will attempt to give you a view on how we can approach the teaching of this new subject. This approach has been used to design courses in the UK, and elsewhere. It provides one methodology for encouraging students to engage with what it is to be human, how we should treat animals, ethical conservation and an appreciation of sustainability. References Brooman, S., and Dr D Legge. Law Relating to Animals, Cavendish Publishing, 1997. Brooman, S. 2017. ‘Creatures, the Academic Lawyer and a Socio-Legal Approach; Introducing Animal Law into the Legal Education Curriculum. Liverpool Law Review 38: 3, 243-257. 2018

Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Summer School 2017, St Stephens House, Oxford, Invited paper for international conference on Fur Farming: Politics and Law in the Fur Trade: A Tale of Three Continents. Despite its dubious reputation, the fur trade has been remarkable resilient in the face of evidence of endemic cruelty. The suitability of target species in ‘farming’ processes is also questioned by philosophers and welfare campaigners. How does an industry with such a questionable ethical position continue to survive? This paper will examine this question in the light of an examination of how three continents have approached the regulation of fur farming and the trade in fur – Europe, America and Australasia. What can we learn from the legal status of such practices in those continents? Has there been any notable success in the regulation or reduction of such practices that might be identified to inform others? What are the trends? In particular, what does the development of the law in these culturally diverse areas of the world tell us about the future regulation and continued existence of the fur trade? Is it on the brink of extinction or an entrenched practice that some will never let go? How can people influence international law and policy of the fur trade? References Beard, N. 2008. The Branding of Ethical Fashion and the Consumer: A Luxury Niche or Mass-market Reality? Fashion Theory 12:4, 447-467. Brooman, S., and D Legge, 2000. Animal Welfare vs Free Trade – Free Trade Wins: An Examination of the Animal Welfare Implications of R v MAFF ex p Compassion in World Farming (1998). Animal Welfare no. 9, 81-85. Brooman, S., and Dr D Legge. Law Relating to Animals, Cavendish Publishing, 1997. Cordeiro-Rodrigues, L. 2016. Is the Animal Liberation Front morally justified in engaging in violent and illegal activism towards animal farms? Critical Studies on Terrorism 9:2, 226-246. Harrop, S. 2013. Wild Animal Welfare in International Law: The Present Position and the Scope for Development. Global Policy 4: 4, 381-90.. 2017

Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Summer School 2016, St Stephens, Oxford, One hundred years and counting: could a human rights approach have more success in reforming the welfare of animals at slaughter? Religious slaughter, protected in UK law since the 1920s, has maintained its operating practices for nearly one hundred years. During that time, very little progress has been made in reforming practices which have given rise to serious welfare concerns across the globe. In challenging slaughter processes, animal welfare campaigners have come up against the legal protection of human rights in relation to religious practice. In light of these difficult political waters, is there another away to approach the issue of religious slaughter which does not compromise religious freedom and lead to allegations of challenging minority human rights? Might the answer lie in looking at the right of people to know where their meat comes from? This paper builds upon the author’s recent work in the Journal of Animal Ethics (Brooman 2016). The author suggests that an information approach moves the issue beyond accusations of anti-religious sentiments and draws the whole life of the animal into focus. It may provide a way to examine the meat-production process from birth to slaughter and allow the consumer access to knowledge about the way in which the animal was treated. References Brooman, S., 2016. In search of the missing ingredient: Religious Slaughter, Incremental failure and the Right to Know. Journal of Animal Ethics, 2016. In print. Brooman, S., and Dr D Legge. Law Relating to Animals, Cavendish Publishing, 1997. Bruce, A. (2011). Do sacred cows make the best hamburgers? The legal regulation of religious slaughter of animals. University of New South Wales Law Journal 34(1), 351-382. McMullen, S. (2015). Is Capitalism to Blame? Animal Lives in the Marketplace. Journal of Animal Ethics 5(2), 126-134. Mellor, D., T. Gibson & C. Johnson. (2009). A re-evaluation of the need to stun calves prior to slaughter by ventral-neck incision: An introductory review. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 57(2), 77-85. Zoethout, C. (2013). Ritual Slaughter and the Freedom of religion: Some Reflections on a Stunning Matter. Human Rights Quarterly, 35(3), 651-672.. 2016

Centre for Animals and Social Justice Conference, The Foundry, London, Invited to give a Paper: Political Change, Animal Law and Legal Education: Why We Should All Be Concerned.. 2015

Higher Education Academy Event. Legal Education in a Changing World: Engaging the Modern Law Student., Manchester Metropolitan University, ‘Think about it!: reflection strategies to help law students adjust to university.’ Simon Brooman and Sue Darwent.. 2012

Seminar Series, Department of Law, Keele University, Paper entitled: Designing and Delivering an Animal Law module in the Law Undergraduate Curriculum.. 2011

Annual Conference of the Committee of Heads of Law Schools, Warwick University, Invited by the Committee (CHOLS) to give a paper on 'Retention Strategies for Law Schools.. 2008

Departmental Event, London Metropolitan University, Department of Law and Accountancy, Paper entitled: The Development of Successful Retention Strategies.. 2007

Animal Rights Seminar Series, Department of Philosophy, Mansfiled College, Oxford, Invited to deliver a paper entitled: The Future of Animal Rights.. 2007

Conference presentation:

Is reflective learning one of the keys to student success?, LJMU Learning and Teaching Conference 2019, LJMU, Liverpool, Oral presentation. 2019

From Retention to Employability - Can Reflection Help?, Teaching and Learning Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2018

Co-creation with students to improve assessment feedback: course-based approaches and enhanced project leadership, International Assessment in Higher Education, Manchester, Oral presentation. 2017

‘Partnership’ with students: what does that mean?, Liverpool John Moores University Teaching and Learning Conference, Liverpool, Oral presentation. 2017

Taking Stock on retention: Where to next?, Liverpool John Moores Teaching and Learning Conference, Liverpool, Oral presentation. 2017

“So long as it is grounded in pragmatism”: addressing the “but” in the principle of co-creation, LJMU Teaching and Learning Conference 2016, LJMU, Oral presentation. 2016

Two thousand years of mistakes - the unintended consequences of defining animlas as property, Socio-legal Studies Conference, Lancaster University, Oral presentation. 2016

Personal Tutoring, a Tale of Two Schools: What is it and how do we do it?, Liverpool John Moores University Learning and Teaching Conference 2015, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2015

Student Involvment in Curriculum Design: A Research Study Across Four Schools - Initial Thoughts, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2015

Is the Student Voice Useful in Higher Education Curriculum Design?, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2014

Reflective Learning in Undergraduate Legal Education: Using a Diary-based Assesment to Help Transition to University, Association of Law Teachers Conference, Oxford University, Oral presentation. 2012

From School to University: Is Our Transition Process Working?, Leanring and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2012

Induction and Transition Interventions: Do they work?, The Higher Education Academy: Conference on Student Retention and Success, University of York, Oral presentation. 2012

Can 1st year students use self-awareness literature to help them adjust to university life?, Association of Law Teachers Conference, Cambridge University, Oral presentation. 2010

Posters, prizes and peer-group skirmishes in one induction process: I'vemade some friends, I knowpeople on my course and I've done some research. What's not to like?, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2010

The Use of Self-awareness Literature by 1st Year Students, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2009

Don't lean on the staff - bring them with you., Association of Law Teachers Conference, Oxford University, Oral presentation. 2008

Enhancing the Student Experience and Improving Retention Rates, United Kingdom Centre for Legal Education: Learning in Law Conference, University of Warwick, Oral presentation. 2008

Improve Your Retention Rates by 10%: Is it time for Mr Nice to Meet Mr Nasty?, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2008

Informing 1st year Students About the Interaction of Personal Qualities with Academic Performance and Success, European Conference of the 1st year Experience, University of Wolverhampton, Oral presentation. 2008

The Great Retention Conspiracy No. 2, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2007

The Great Retention Conspiracy, Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool John Moores University, Oral presentation. 2006

Front-loaded Student Support on an LLB Programme, Socio-Legal Studies Conference, Liverpool University, Oral presentation. 2005

The use and evaluation of a new early-learning support module on the law degree, Liverpool John Moores Learning and Teaching Conference, Liverpool, Oral presentation. 2004

Research Grants Awarded:

ALAW, Conference on Animal Law, Ethics and Policy, Grant value (£): 2000, Duration of research project: To support Conference on Animal Law, Ethics and Policy Septemebr 2019. 2019

External PGR examinations performed:

University of Limerick, PhD, The civilising process as applied to hunting and horse racing. 2018

Editorial boards:

UK Journal of Animal Law, Editor. 2018

Journal of Animal Ethics - University of Illinois, Consultant Editor, 2016

Reflective Practice (International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives), Editorial Board. 2013

Innovations in Practice, Liverpool John Moores University, Editorial Board. 2013

Membership of professional bodies:

Member, United Kingdom Centre for Animal Welfare. 2017

Member, Society of Legal Scholars. 2015

External collaboration:

United Kingdom Centre for Animal Law, Advisor. 2017


Students as co-creators: exploring level 5 student’s perceptions of programme level feedback strategies and processes., LJMU, 2015

Sophomore Slump Project - evaluating the involvement of second year students in curriculum development, LJMU, 2012

Research and Development Award (£2800), LJMU. To investigate and set-up an on-line peer to peer mentoring scheme., Liverpool John Moores University. 2008

Research and Development Award (£2000), LJMU. To investigate and evaluate poor retention rates in the School of Law LJMU and to recommend changes to practice., Liverpool John Moores University. 2001

Learning and Teaching Award for Animal Law, Liverpool John Moores University. 1997


Fellow, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics. 2015

Senior Fellow, Higher Education Academy. 2014

Teaching qualification:

PGCE Higher Education. 1987

Postgraduate Certificate in Education (With Distinctions in Theory and Practice). 1987