Dr Emily Bethell

School of Biological and Environmental Sciences

My research focus is primate social cognition and behaviour: what monkeys and apes can tell us about human evolution, and the implications of similarities and differences in cognitive processes for understanding and improving psychological wellbeing of primates in captivity.

I am also interested in developing new methods to assess emotion across animal species.

Degrees

2009, Roehampton University, United Kingdom, PhD

Highlighted publications

Crump A, Bethell EJ, Earley R, Lee VE, Mendl M, Oldham L, Turner SP, Arnott G. 2020. Emotion in animal contests Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 287 :20201715-20201715 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell E, Cassidy LC, Brockhausen RR, Pfefferle D. 2019. Toward a Standardised Test of Fearful Temperament in Primates: a Sensitive Alternative to the Human Intruder Task for Laboratory-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Frontiers in Psychology, 10 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Crump A, Arnott G, Bethell EJ. 2018. Affect-Driven Attention Biases as Animal Welfare Indicators: Review and Methods Animals, 8 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, MacLarnon A, Semple S. 2016. Emotion evaluation and response slowing in a non-human primate: New directions for cognitive bias measures of animal welfare Behavioral Sciences, 6 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell EJ. 2015. A “How-To” Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, S18 :18-42 DOI Author Url Public Url

Prescott M, Bethell EJ, Kemp C. 2015. NC3Rs Macaque website Author Url Publisher Url

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, Maclarnon A, Semple S. 2012. Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques. PLoS One, 7 :e44387-e44387 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, MacLarnon A, Semple S. 2012. Cognitive bias in a non-human primate: Husbandry procedures influence cognitive indicators of psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques Animal Welfare, 21 :185-195 DOI Author Url Public Url

Journal article

Bethell E. 2021. Optimism and pasture access in dairy cows Scientific Reports, 11 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Howarth ERI, Kemp C, Thatcher HR, Szott ID, Farningham D, Witham CL, Holmes A, Semple S, Bethell EJ. 2021. Developing and validating attention bias tools for assessing trait and state affect in animals: A worked example with Macaca mulatta Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 234 DOI

Crump A, Bethell EJ, Earley R, Lee VE, Mendl M, Oldham L, Turner SP, Arnott G. 2020. Emotion in animal contests Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 287 :20201715-20201715 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Mettke-Hofmann C, Eccles G, Greggor A, Bethell E. 2020. Cognition in a changing world: Red-headed Gouldian finches enter spatially unfamiliar habitats more readily than do black-headed birds Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Crump A, Mullens C, Bethell E, Cunningham EM, Arnott G. 2020. Microplastics disrupt hermit crab shell selection Biology Letters, 16 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Crump A, Bethell E, Arnott G. 2019. Pasture Access Affects Behavioral Indicators of Wellbeing in Dairy Cows Animals, 9 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell E, Cassidy LC, Brockhausen RR, Pfefferle D. 2019. Toward a Standardised Test of Fearful Temperament in Primates: a Sensitive Alternative to the Human Intruder Task for Laboratory-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Frontiers in Psychology, 10 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell E, Kemp C, Thatcher H, Schroeder J, Arbuckle K, Farningham D, Witham C, Holmes A, MacLarnon A, Semple S. 2019. Heritability and maternal effects on social attention during an attention bias task in a non-human primate, Macaca mulatta EcoEvoRxiv Preprints, DOI

Crump A, Arnott G, Bethell EJ. 2018. Affect-Driven Attention Biases as Animal Welfare Indicators: Review and Methods Animals, 8 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Cronin K, Bethell EJ, Jacobson S, Egelkamp C, Hopper L, Ross S. 2018. Evaluating Mood Changes in Response to Anthropogenic Noise with a Response-Slowing Task in Three Species of Zoo-housed Primates Animal Behavior & Cognition, 5 Public Url

Cronin K, Bethell EJ, Jacobson S, Egelkamp C, Hopper L, Ross S. 2018. Evaluating Mood Changes in Response to Anthropogenic Noise with a Response-Slowing Task in Three Species of Zoo-housed Primates Animal Behaviour and Cognition, 5 Public Url

Kemp C, Thatcher H, Farningham D, Witham C, MacLarnon A, Holmes A, Semple S, Bethell EJ. 2017. A protocol for training group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to cooperate with husbandry and research procedures using positive reinforcement Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 197 :90-100 DOI Author Url Public Url

Lyons MT, Brewer G, Bethell EJ. 2017. Sex-Specific Effect of Recalled Parenting on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Adulthood Current Psychology, 36 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, MacLarnon A, Semple S. 2016. Emotion evaluation and response slowing in a non-human primate: New directions for cognitive bias measures of animal welfare Behavioral Sciences, 6 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell EJ. 2015. A “How-To” Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, S18 :18-42 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Koyama NF. 2015. Happy hamsters? Enrichment induces positive judgement bias for mildly (but not truly) ambiguous cues to reward and punishment in Mesocricetus auratus Royal Society Open Science, 2 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Jonason PK, Lyons M, Bethell EJ. 2014. The making of Darth Vader: Parent–child care and the Dark Triad Personality and Individual Differences, 67 :30-34 DOI Author Url

Richards A, Holmes A, Pell P, Bethell EJ. 2013. Adapting effects of emotional expression in anxiety: Evidence for an enhanced Late Positive Potential Social Neuroscience, 8 :650-664 DOI Public Url

Jonason PK, Lyons M, Bethell EJ, Ross R. 2013. Different routes to limited empathy in the sexes: Examining the links between the Dark Triad and empathy Personality and Individual Differences, 54 :572-576 DOI

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, Maclarnon A, Semple S. 2012. Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques. PLoS One, 7 :e44387-e44387 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Holmes A, MacLarnon A, Semple S. 2012. Cognitive bias in a non-human primate: Husbandry procedures influence cognitive indicators of psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques Animal Welfare, 21 :185-195 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bethell EJ, Vick S-J, Bard KA. 2007. Measurement of eye-gaze in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) American Journal of Primatology, 69 :562-575 DOI Author Url

Bethell EJ, Semple S, MacLarnon A, Holmes A. 2007. The effect of emotion state on responses to social stimuli by rhesus macaques Primate Eye, 92 :5-6

Bethell EJ, Waller BM. 2005. Altruism or cooperation in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes? Folia Primatologica, 76 :242-244 DOI Author Url

Bethell EJ, Whiten A, Muhumuza G, Kakura J. 2000. Active plant food division and sharing by wild chimpanzees Primate Report, 56 :67-71

Book review

Bethell EJ. 2021. Studying Primates: How to Design, Conduct and Report Primatological Research ANIMAL WELFARE, 30 :106-108 Author Url

Bethell E. 2017. Book review: Being Jane Primate Eye,

Dataset

Witham C, Bethell E. 2019. The Macaque Stimulus Set DOI Publisher Url

Editorial/letter to the editor

Bethell EJ, Dean L, Smith A, Bearder SK. 2018. Celebrating 50 years of the Primate Society of Great Britain Evolutionary Anthropology, 27 :74-77 DOI Publisher Url Public Url

Bethell EJ. 2016. Color Red Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelfrod VA. :1-3 DOI

Internet publication

Prescott M, Bethell EJ, Kemp C. 2015. NC3Rs Macaque website Author Url Publisher Url

Book

Bethell E, Milsom C. 2014. Posters and Presentations :1-144 Palgrave Macmillan. London 9781137357083 Publisher Url

Williams K, Bethell EJ, Lawton J, Parfitt-Brown C, Richardson M, Rowe V. 2011. Completing your PhD Palgrave MacMillan. London 978-0230292819 Publisher Url

Williams K, Bethell E, Lawton J, Parfitt C, Richardson M, Rowe V. 2010. Planning Your PhD Palgrave MacMillan 9780230251939 Publisher Url

Conference publication

Kemp C, Bethell EJ. Measuring psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques: attention bias http://behaviour-2015.m.asnevents.com.au/schedule/session/6854/abstract/24936, Behaviour

Highlighted activities

Conference organisation:

Primate Society of Great Britain 50th anniversary conference, Chair of Organising Committee. 2015

Professional activities

Media Coverage:

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/feb/11/pigs-can-be-trained-to-use-computer-joysticks-say-researchers, Comment in The Guardian on research in animal cognition and welfare. 2021

https://www.indiatimes.com/technology/science-and-future/animals-feel-positive-negative-just-like-humans-says-study-528462.html, https://www.independent.ie/irish-news/animals-have-bad-moods-over-minor-slights-theyre-even-more-like-humans-than-we-thought-39801354.html, https://www.popmech.ru/science/news-647373-okazalos-chto-zhivotnye-mogut-ispytyvat-emocii-kotorye-silno-vliyayut-na-ih-budushchee-povedenie/?from=stars_news_2, News outlet coverage of paper - International (India, Russia, Ireland). 2020

https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/plastic-pollution-microplastics-hermit-crabs-shells-study-belfast-liverpool-a9490191.html, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/29/microplastics-disrupt-hermit-crabs-ability-to-choose-shell-study-suggests, https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2020/04/hermit-crab-study-uncovers-devastating-effects-of-plastic-on-marine-life/, Media coverage in 114 media news outlets for Microplastics disrupt hermit crab shell selection. 2020

http://how-to-tell-if-a-hamster-is-truly-happy-150727.htm/, Daily Mail.

http://naked_scientists_popup_player.html/, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/science/article4511221.ece, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/happiness-hamster-hammock-according-liverpool-9741072, Media/radio coverage of Royal Society paper 2015 the Times, BBC Radio, Liverpool Echo.

http://news.discovery.com/animals/how-to-tell-if-a-hamster-is-truly-happy-150727.htm, Discovery Magazine.

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2015/07/how-tell-if-your-hamster-happy, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3178093/Happiness-swing-hammock-hamster-Rodents-need-scamper-play-swing-boost-mood.html, Media coverage of Royal Soc paper 2015 in Science, Discovery, Daily Mail.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/07/28/hamster-mood-angry-study/30803989/, http://metro.co.uk/2015/07/29/hamsters-are-more-optimistic-when-theyve-got-a-hammock-study-finds-5317078/, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/how-to-tell-if-your-hamster-is-happy_55b91079e4b0074ba5a7247f, Media coverage of Royal Society paper 2015: Metro, USA Today, Huffington Post.

Conference organisation:

European Conference for Behavioural Biology, Organising Committee, https://www.ljmu.ac.uk/conferences/ecbb. 2018

PSGB Spring meeting 2018, PSGB Meetings Organiser. 2018

Primate Society of Great Britain Spring Conference 2017, PSGB Meetings Organiser. 2017

Primate Society of Great Britain spring conference 2016, Scientific Meetings Coordinator for the PSGB, http://www.psgb.org/. 2016

Primate Society of Great Britain 50th anniversary conference, Chair of Organising Committee. 2015

Conference presentation:

Invited Seminar Speaker, Gottingen University Seminar Series, DPZ, Gottingen, Germany, Oral presentation. 2018

Invited Seminar Speaker, Queens Belfast Seminar, Queens Belfast, Oral presentation. 2018

Invited Seminar Speaker, Imperial College Seminar, Imperial College. Silwood Campus, London, Oral presentation. 2017

Invited Keynote, Venus International, India, Oral presentation. 2017

Invited: Measuring animal emotions, International congress for Psychology, Japan, Oral presentation. 2016

Invited speaker: 3Rs in primate research, LJMU Postgraduate Research Day, LJMU, Oral presentation. 2016

Introduction to the Liverpool League of Animal Behaviour Scientists, LivLABS, Liverpool, Oral presentation. 2016

Cognitive bias - methods for measuring emotion in zoo animals, European Federation for Primatology, Rome, Italy, Oral presentation. 2015

Measuring psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques: attention bias, Behaviour, Australia, Oral presentation. 2015

Effects of a habituation regime on attention bias for veterinary stimuli in macaques, Primate Society of Great Britain spring conference, Roehampton, London, Poster presentation. 2015

What is neutral? Attention bias for facial expressions in macaques, Primate Society of Great Britain spring conference, Roehampton, London, Poster presentation. 2015

Invited: Attention bias a cross species comparison, Experimental Psychology Society, Newcastle, Oral presentation. 2014

Attention bias: developing a methods to asses wellbeing in macaque breeding facilities, NC3RS Primate Welfare workshop, London, Oral presentation. 2014

Award:

Outstanding Scientist Award for contributions to field of primate behaviour and cognition, Venus International, https://venusinfo.org/research/arm/2017/info.html. 2017

Best Teaching Team, LJMU Student Union. 2011

Best Student Presentation, Primate Society of Great Britain. 2007

Honourable mention in student competition for best talk, Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. 2007

Membership of professional bodies:

Member, Animal Welfare Research Network. 2016

Member, Universities Federation of Animal Welfare. 2004

Member, Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. 2000

Member, Association for Psychological Science.

Member, Primate Society of Great Britain.

Editorial boards:

Frontiers in Psychology, Review Editor in Comparative Psychology, http://journal.frontiersin.org/journal/psychology#editorial-board. 2015

External committees:

50th anniversary conference organising committee, Primate Society of Great Britain, Chair of Organising Committee. 2015

PSGB Scientific Meetings Coordinator, PSGB. 2015

Captive Care Working Party, Primate Society of Great Britain, member, http://www.psgb.org/. 2015

Other invited event:

Invited symposium speaker: European Federation of Primatology 2015, Rome, Invited speaker. 2015

Psychology Research Seminar, Stirlin University, Invited speaker. 2015

Zoo Animal Welfare Symposium, Detroit Zoological Society, Detroit, USA, Invited speaker. 2014

Experimental Psychology Society, Newcastle University, Invited speaker. 2014

University of Stirling Psychology Seminar Series, University of Stirling, Invited seminar speaker - psychology Department, Stirling. 2012

Birkbeck College Seminar Series, Birkbeck College, London, Invited paper. 2010

NC3Rs Primate Welfare meeting, London, UK, Invited paper presented. 2010

University College London Anthropology seminar series, UCL, London, Invited paper presented. 2010

Fellowships:

LJMU ECR Fellowship, Liverpool John Moores University. 2013

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