Liverpool Skylilne

Sport and Exercise Sciences

Prof Barry Drust

Prof Barry Drust

Telephone: 0151 231 4032

Biography

Barry Is a Professor of Applied Exercise Physiology. Barry's main research interests is the physiology of intermittent exercise, more specifically the physiology of football (soccer). Research areas within this theme include optimising performance, effective strategies associated with training and recovery and talent development. Barry is also a applied practitioner supporting staff and players within elite football. Current roles within professional football include consultative roles with the English FA and LIverpool FC. Barry also has links with other industrial partners including Nike and Catapult.

Degrees

Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom, BSc (Hons) Sport Science
Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom, PhD - Metabolic responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise

Publications

Highlighted publications

Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Eusterwiemann E, Drust B, Lisboa PJ, Vanrenterghem J. 2017. The Relationship Between Whole-Body External Loading and Body-Worn Accelerometry During Team-Sport Movements INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE, 12 :18-26 >DOI >Link

Anderson L, Orme P, Di Michele R, Close GL, Milsom J, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2016. Quantification of Seasonal Long Physical Load in Soccer Players With Different Starting Status From the English Premier League: Implications for Maintaining Squad Physical Fitness. International journal of sports physiology and performance,

Malone JJ, Di Michele R, Morgans R, Burgess D, Morton JP, Drust B. 2015. Seasonal training-load quantification in elite English Premier League soccer players International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10 :489-497 >DOI

Wrigley RD, Drust B, Stratton G, Atkinson G, Gregson W. 2014. Long-term Soccer-specific Training Enhances the Rate of Physical Development of Academy Soccer Players Independent of Maturation Status INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 35 :1090-1094 >DOI >Link

Bartlett JD, Joo CH, Jeong TS, Louhelainen J, Cochran AJ, Gibala MJ, Gregson W, Close GL, Drust B, Morton JP. 2012. Matched work high-intensity interval and continuous running induce similar increases in PGC-1α mRNA, AMPK, p38 and p53 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle Journal of Applied Physiology, 112 :1125-1143 >DOI

Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, Salvo VD. 2010. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. Int J Sports Med, 31 :237-242 >DOI >Link

Di Salvo V, Gregson W, Atkinson G, Tordoff P, Drust B. 2009. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med, 30 :205-212 >DOI >Link

Morton JP, Maclaren DPM, Cable NT, Campbell IT, Evans L, Kayani AC, McArdle A, Drust B. 2008. Trained men display increased basal heat shock protein content of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 40 :1255-1262 >DOI >Link

Journal Articles

Murtagh C, Brownlee T, O'Boyle A, Morgans R, Drust B, Erskine RM. 2017. The Importance of Speed and Power in Elite Youth Soccer Depends on Maturation Status Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, >DOI >Link

Beato M, Bianchi M, Coratella G, Merlini M, Drust B. 2017. Effects of Plyometric and Directional Training on Speed and Jump Performance in Elite Youth Soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res, >DOI >Link

Ward PA, Ramsden S, Coutts AJ, Hulton AT, Drust B. 2017. Positional Differences in Running and Non-Running Activities During Elite American Football Training. J Strength Cond Res, >DOI >Link

Baumert P, Lake MJ, Drust B, Stewart C, Erskine RM. 2017. TRIM63 (MuRF-1) Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Biomarkers of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. Physiol Genomics, :physiolgenomics.00103.2017 >DOI >Link

Anderson L, Naughton RJ, Close GL, Di Michele R, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2017. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 27 :491-498 >DOI >Link

Whitworth-Turner C, Di Michele R, Muir I, Gregson W, Drust B. 2017. A shower before bedtime may improve the sleep onset latency of youth soccer players European Journal of Sport Science, 17 :1119-1128 >DOI

Murtagh CF, Vanrenterghem J, O'Boyle A, Morgans R, Drust B, Erskine RM. 2017. Unilateral jumps in different directions: a novel assessment of soccer-associated power? JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT, 20 :1018-1023 >DOI >Link

Morgans R, Di Michele R, Drust B. 2017. Soccer Match-Play Represents an Important Component of the Power Training Stimulus in Premier League Players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, :1-12 >DOI >Link

Allan R, Sharples AP, Close GL, Drust B, Shepherd SO, Dutton J, Morton JP, Gregson W. 2017. Postexercise cold water immersion modulates skeletal muscle PGC-1 alpha mRNA expression in immersed and nonimmersed limbs: evidence of systemic regulation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 123 :451-459 >DOI >Link

Vanrenterghem J, Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Drust B. 2017. Training Load Monitoring in Team Sports: A Novel Framework Separating Physiological and Biomechanical Load-Adaptation Pathways Sports Medicine, 47 :2135-2142 >DOI

Enright K, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2017. Hormonal responses during two different concurrent-training trials in youth elite soccer players: does changing the organisation of training impact the hormonal response to concurrent exercise? J Sports Med Phys Fitness, >DOI >Link

Naughton RJ, Drust B, O'Boyle A, Abayomi J, Mahon E, Morton JP, Davies IG. 2017. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, 42 :517-522 >DOI >Link

Thorpe RT, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. 2017. Monitoring fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes: Implications for practice International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12 :27-34 >DOI

Anderson L, Orme P, Naughton RJ, Close GL, Milsom J, Rydings D, O'Boyle A, Di Michele R, Louis J, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2017. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM, 27 :228-238 >DOI >Link

Thorpe RT, Strudwick AJ, Buchheit M, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. 2017. The influence of changes in acute training load on daily sensitivity of morning-measured fatigue variables in elite soccer players International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12 :107-113 >DOI

Barreira P, Robinson MA, Drust B, Nedergaard N, Azidin RMFR, Vanrenterghem J. 2017. Mechanical Player Load (TM) using trunk-mounted accelerometry in football: Is it a reliable, task- and player-specific observation? JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 35 :1674-1681 >DOI >Link

Datson N, Drust B, Weston M, Jarman IH, Lisboa PJ, Gregson W. 2017. MATCH PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS DURING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH, 31 :2379-2387 >Link

Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Eusterwiemann E, Drust B, Lisboa PJ, Vanrenterghem J. 2017. The Relationship Between Whole-Body External Loading and Body-Worn Accelerometry During Team-Sport Movements INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE, 12 :18-26 >DOI >Link

Scott A, Malone JJ, Morgans R, Burgess D, Gregson W, Morton JP, Drust B. 2016. The relationship between physical match performance and 48-h post-game creatine kinase concentrations in English Premier League soccer players INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & COACHING, 11 :846-852 >DOI >Link

Enright KJ, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2016. Implementing concurrent-training and nutritional strategies in professional football: a complex challenge for coaches and practitioners Science and Medicine in Football, >DOI

Naughton RJ, Drust B, O'Boyle A, Morgans R, Abayomi J, Davies IG, Morton JP, Mahon E. 2016. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORT NUTRITION AND EXERCISE METABOLISM, 26 :473-480 >DOI >Link

Joo CH, Allan R, Drust B, Close GL, Jeong TS, Bartlett JD, Mawhinney C, Louhelainen J, Morton JP, Gregson W. 2016. Passive and post-exercise cold-water immersion augments PGC-1 alpha and VEGF expression in human skeletal muscle EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 116 :2315-2326 >DOI >Link

Curran K, Drust B, Murphy R, Pringle A, Richardson D. 2016. The challenge and impact of engaging hard-toreach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League 'Football in the Community' men's health programme PUBLIC HEALTH, 135 :14-22 >DOI >Link

Baumert P, Lake MJ, Stewart CE, Drust B, Erskine RM. 2016. Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 116 :1595-1625 >DOI >Link

Naughton RJ, Drust B, O'Boyle A, Morgans R, Abayomi J, Davies IG, Morton JP, Mahon E. 2016. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-day Training Period. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism,

Anderson L, Orme P, Di Michele R, Close GL, Milsom J, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2016. Quantification of Seasonal Long Physical Load in Soccer Players With Different Starting Status From the English Premier League: Implications for Maintaining Squad Physical Fitness. International journal of sports physiology and performance,

Kelly DM, Strudwick AJ, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. 2016. The within-participant correlation between perception of effort and heart rate-based estimations of training load in elite soccer players JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 34 :1328-1332 >DOI >Link

Thorpe RT, Strudwick AJ, Buchheit M, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. 2016. Tracking Morning Fatigue Status Across In-Season Training Weeks in Elite Soccer Players INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE, 11 :947-952 >DOI >Link

Anderson L, Orme P, Di Michele R, Close GL, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2016. Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodisation JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 34 :1250-1259 >DOI >Link

Hulton AT, Flower D, Murphy R, Richardson D, Drust B, Curran K. 2016. Effectiveness of a community football programme on improving physiological markers of health in a hard-to-reach male population: the role of exercise intensity Soccer and Society, 17 :196-208 >DOI

Rennie DJ, Vanrenterghem J, Littlewood M, Drust B. 2016. Can the natural turf pitch be viewed as a risk factor for injury within Association Football? JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN SPORT, 19 :547-552 >DOI >Link

Enright K, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2015. The effect of concurrent training organisation in youth elite soccer players European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 :2367-2381 >DOI

Milsom J, Naughton R, O Boyle A, Iqbal Z, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2015. Body composition assessment of English Premier League soccer players: a comparative DXA analysis of first team, U21 and U18 squads Journal of Sports Sciences, 33 :1799-1806 >DOI

Enright K, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2015. The effect of concurrent training organisation in youth elite soccer players EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 115 :2367-2381 >DOI >Link

Barreira P, Robinson M, Drust B, Vanrenterghem J. 2015. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in english premier league: Issue resolved, or perhaps not? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36 :604-605 >DOI

Jeong TS, Bartlett JD, Joo CH, Louhelainen J, Close GL, Morton JP, Drust B. 2015. Acute simulated soccer-specific training increases PGC-1α mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle Journal of Sports Sciences, 33 :1493-1503 >DOI

Barreira P, Drust B, Robinson MA, Vanrenterghem J. 2015. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in English premier league: Issue resolved, or perhaps not? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36 :455-459 >DOI

Thorpe RT, Strudwick AJ, Buchheit M, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. 2015. Monitoring Fatigue During the In-Season Competitive Phase in Elite Soccer Players INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE, 10 :958-964 >DOI >Link

Milsom J, Naughton R, O'Boyle A, Iqbal Z, Morgans R, Drust B, Morton JP. 2015. Body composition assessment of English Premier League soccer players: a comparative DXA analysis of first team, U21 and U18 squads JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 33 :1799-1806 >DOI >Link

Raja Azidin RMF, Sankey S, Drust B, Robinson MA, Vanrenterghem J. 2015. Effects of treadmill versus overground soccer match simulations on biomechanical markers of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in side cutting Journal of Sports Sciences, 33 :1332-1341 >DOI

Malone JJ, Di Michele R, Morgans R, Burgess D, Morton JP, Drust B. 2015. Seasonal training-load quantification in elite English Premier League soccer players International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10 :489-497 >DOI

Jeong T-S, Bartlett JD, Joo C-H, Louhelainen J, Close GL, Morton JP, Drust B. 2015. Acute simulated soccer-specific training increases PGC-1 alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 33 :1493-1503 >DOI >Link

Malone JJ, Murtagh CF, Morgans R, Burgess DJ, Morton JP, Drust B. 2015. COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP PERFORMANCE IS NOT AFFECTED DURING AN IN-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE IN ELITE YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH, 29 :752-757 >Link

Morgans R, Owen A, Doran D, Drust B, Morton JP. 2015. Prematch Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Soccer Players From the 2014 World Cup Qualifying Campaign INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE, 10 :401-403 >DOI >Link

Ingebrigtsen J, Dalen T, Hjelde GH, Drust B, Wisløff U. 2015. Acceleration and sprint profiles of a professional elite football team in match play European Journal of Sport Science, 15 :101-110 >DOI

Iga J, Scott M, George K, Drust B. 2014. Seasonal changes in multiple indices of body composition in professional football players International journal of sports medicine, 35 :994-998 >DOI

Morgans R, Orme P, Anderson L, Drust B. 2014. Principles and practices of training for soccer Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3 :251-257 >DOI

Morgans R, Orme P, Anderson L, Drust B. 2014. Principles and practices of training for soccer Journal of Sport and Health Science, >DOI

Datson N, Hulton A, Andersson H, Lewis T, Weston M, Drust B, Gregson W. 2014. Applied Physiology of Female Soccer: An Update (vol 44, pg 1225, 2014) SPORTS MEDICINE, 44 :1321-1321 >DOI >Link

Morgans R, Orme P, Anderson L, Drust B, Morton JP. 2014. An intensive winter fixture schedule induces a transient fall in salivary IgA in English premier league soccer players Research in Sports Medicine, 22 :346-354 >DOI

Drust B, Impellizzeri F, Meyer T. 2014. Return to play decisions - a highly important albeit unsolved issue Journal of Sports Sciences, 32 :1205 >DOI

Wells C, Edwards A, Fysh M, Drust B. 2014. Effects of high-intensity running training on soccer-specific fitness in professional male players Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 39 :763-769 >DOI

Wrigley RD, Drust B, Stratton G, Atkinson G, Gregson W. 2014. Long-term Soccer-specific Training Enhances the Rate of Physical Development of Academy Soccer Players Independent of Maturation Status INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 35 :1090-1094 >DOI >Link

Curran K, Drust B, Richardson D. 2014. 'I just want to watch the match': a practitioner's reflective account of men's health themed match day events at an English Premier League football club Soccer and Society, 15 :919-933 >DOI

Datson N, Hulton A, Andersson H, Lewis T, Weston M, Drust B, Gregson W. 2014. Erratum to: Applied Physiology of Female Soccer: An Update Sports Medicine, >DOI

Iga J, Scott M, George K, Drust B. 2014. Seasonal Changes in Multiple Indices of Body Composition in Professional Football Players INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, 35 :994-998 >DOI >Link

Datson N, Hulton A, Andersson H, Lewis T, Weston M, Drust B, Gregson W. 2014. Applied Physiology of Female Soccer: An Update SPORTS MEDICINE, 44 :1225-1240 >DOI >Link

Wilson G, Drust B, Morton JP, Close GL. 2014. Weight-Making Strategies in Professional Jockeys: Implications for Physical and Mental Health and Well-Being SPORTS MEDICINE, 44 :785-796 >DOI >Link

McGlory C, White A, Treins C, Drust B, Close GL, MacLaren DPM, Campbell IT, Philp A, Schenk S, Morton JP, Hamilton DL. 2014. Application of the [gamma-P-32] ATP kinase assay to study anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 116 :504-513 >DOI >Link

Almutawa M, Scott M, George KP, Drust B. 2014. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: A pilot study in elite Saudi National Teamfootballers Physical Therapy in Sport, 15 :47-52 >DOI

Bartlett JD, Close GL, Drust B, Morton JP. 2014. The emerging role of p53 in exercise metabolism. Sports Med, 44 :303-309 >DOI >Link

Wilson G, Hawken MB, Poole I, Sparks A, Bennett S, Drust B, Morton J, Close GL. 2014. Rapid weight-loss impairs simulated riding performance and strength in jockeys: implications for making-weight. J Sports Sci, 32 :383-391 >DOI >Link

Almutawa M, Scott M, George KP, Drust B. 2014. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers. Phys Ther Sport, 15 :47-52 >DOI >Link

Jeong TS, Reilly T, Morton JP, Drust B. 2013. The physiological responses to a laboratory-based soccer-specific training simulation (LSSTS) on a motorized treadmill :89-94 >DOI

Green M, Gregson W, Drust B. 2013. The physiological effects of soccer training in elite youth soccer players :83-88 >DOI

Drust B, Cullen C, Di Michele R. 2013. The assessment of repeated sprint ability using a combined sub-maximal and exhaustive treadmill protocol :107-112 >DOI

Dickinson J, Drust B, Whyte G, Brukner P. 2013. Screening English Premier League football players for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction :341-346 >DOI

Nunome H, Drust B, Dawson B. 2013. Science and football VII: The proceedings of the seventh world congress on science and football Science and Football VII: The Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress on Science and Football, :1-432 >DOI

Nunome H, Drust B, Dawson B. 2013. Introduction Science and Football VII: The Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress on Science and Football, :xv-xvi >DOI

Gregson W, Drust B. 2013. Environmental stress :82-101 >DOI

Burgess D, Drust B. 2013. Developing a physiology-based sports science support strategy in the professional game :272-289 >DOI

Zouhal H, Lemoal E, Wong DP, Benounis O, Castagna C, Duluc C, Owen AL, Drust B. 2013. Physiological Responses of General vs. Specific Aerobic Endurance Exercises in Soccer. Asian journal of sports medicine, 4 :213-220

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Atkinson G. 2013. A meta-analytic approach to quantify the dose-response relationship between melatonin and core temperature European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113 :2323-2329 >DOI

Drust B. 2013. Counter-point number 1: Football-specific testing: Adding value or confirming the evidence? Journal of Sports Sciences, 31 :1505 >DOI

Zouhal H, LeMoal E, Wong DP, BenOunis O, Castagna C, Duluc C, Owen AL, Drust B. 2013. Physiological responses of general vs. specific aerobic endurance exercises in soccer Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 4 :212-220

Drust B, Green M. 2013. Science and football: evaluating the influence of science on performance. J Sports Sci, 31 :1377-1382 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Impellizzeri F, Meyer T. 2013. An introduction to 'Science and medicine in football'. J Sports Sci, 31 :1375-1376 >DOI >Link

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Atkinson G. 2013. A meta-analytic approach to quantify the dose-response relationship between melatonin and core temperature European Journal of Applied Physiology, :1-7 >DOI

Wilson G, Sparks SA, Drust B, Morton JP, Close GL. 2013. Assessment of energy expenditure in elite jockeys during simulated race riding and a working day: Implications for making weight Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 38 :415-420 >DOI

Bartlett JD, Louhelainen J, Iqbal Z, Cochran AJ, Gibala MJ, Gregson W, Close GL, Drust B, Morton JP. 2013. Reduced carbohydrate availability enhances exercise-induced p53 signaling in human skeletal muscle: implications for mitochondrial biogenesis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 304 :R450-R458 >DOI >Link

Bridge CA, McNaughton LR, Close GL, Drust B. 2013. Taekwondo exercise protocols do not recreate the physiological responses of championship combat. Int J Sports Med, 34 :573-581 >DOI >Link

Wilson G, Fraser WD, Sharma A, Eubank M, Drust B, Morton JP, Close GL. 2013. Markers of bone health, renal function, liver function, anthropometry and perception of mood: a comparison between Flat and National Hunt Jockeys. Int J Sports Med, 34 :453-459 >DOI >Link

Kelly DM, Gregson W, Reilly T, Drust B. 2013. The development of a soccer-specific training drill for elite-level players. J Strength Cond Res, 27 :938-943 >DOI >Link

Unnithan V, White J, Georgiou A, Iga J, Drust B. 2012. Talent identification in youth soccer JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 30 :1719-1726 >DOI >Link

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Atkinson G. 2012. A Meta-analysis Of The Hypothermic Properties Of Exogenous Melatonin In Humans MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 44 :481-481 >Link

Williams AM, Drust B. 2012. Contemporary perspectives on talent identification and development in soccer. J Sports Sci, 30 :1571-1572 >DOI >Link

Wrigley R, Drust B, Stratton G, Scott M, Gregson W. 2012. Quantification of the typical weekly in-season training load in elite junior soccer players. J Sports Sci, 30 :1573-1580 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Ahmed Q, Roky R. 2012. Circadian variation and soccer performance: implications for training and match-play during Ramadan. J Sports Sci, 30 Suppl 1 :S43-S52 >DOI >Link

Wilson G, Chester N, Eubank M, Crighton B, Morton J, Close G. 2012. An alternate dietary strategy to make weight improves mood, decreases body-fat and removes the necessity for dehydration: A case study from a professional UK jockey. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism,

Wilson G, Chester N, Eubank M, Crighton B, Drust B, Morton JP, Close GL. 2012. An alternative dietary strategy to make weight while improving mood, decreasing body fat, and not dehydrating: a case study of a professional jockey. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22 :225-231 >Link

Wells CM, Edwards AM, Winter EM, Fysh ML, Drust B. 2012. Sport-specific fitness testing differentiates professional from amateur soccer players where VO2max and VO2 kinetics do not. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 52 :245-254 >Link

Dellal A, Drust B, Lago-Penas C. 2012. Variation of activity demands in small-sided soccer games International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33 :370-375 >DOI

Morton JP, Iqbal Z, Drust B, Burgess D, Close GL, Brukner PD. 2012. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status in professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37 :798-802 >DOI >Link

Clarke ND, Campbell IT, Drust B, Evans L, Reilly T, Maclaren DPM. 2012. The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate. J Sports Sci, 30 :699-708 >DOI >Link

Dellal A, Drust B, Lago-Penas C. 2012. Variation of activity demands in small-sided soccer games. Int J Sports Med, 33 :370-375 >DOI >Link

Rebelo A, Brito J, Seabra A, Oliveira J, Drust B, Krustrup P. 2012. A new tool to measure training load in soccer training and match play. Int J Sports Med, 33 :297-304 >DOI >Link

Bartlett JD, Joo CH, Jeong TS, Louhelainen J, Cochran AJ, Gibala MJ, Gregson W, Close GL, Drust B, Morton JP. 2012. Matched work high-intensity interval and continuous running induce similar increases in PGC-1α mRNA, AMPK, p38 and p53 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle Journal of Applied Physiology, 112 :1125-1143 >DOI

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Morris CJ, Chester N, Atkinson G. 2011. Diurnal variation in the salivary melatonin responses to exercise: relation to exercise-mediated tachycardia European Journal of Applied Physiology, :1-8

Dunn K, Drust B, Flower D, Richardson D. 2011. KICKING THE HABIT; A BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL ACCOUNT OF ENGAGING MEN RECOVERING FROM DRUG MISUSE IN REGULAR RECREATIONAL FOOTBALL JOURNAL OF MENS HEALTH, 8 :233-233 >DOI >Link

Unnithan VB, Georgiou A, Iga J, Drust B. 2011. The evaluation of small-sided games as a talent identification mechanism in elite youth football :301-304 >DOI

Dickinson J, Hu J, Chester N, Drust B, Whyte G, Loosemore M. 2011. The physiological effect of 800 mcg and 1600 mcg inhaled salbutamol during a football specific treadmill run at high ambient temperatures. Br J Sports Med, 45 :A19-A20 >DOI

Hu J, Dickinson J, Chester N, Drust B, Whyte G, Loosemoore M. 2011. The effect of 800 μg and 1600 μg inhaled salbutamol on FEV1 in non-asthmatic football players. Br J Sports Med, 45 :A20 >DOI

Bridge CA, Jones MA, Drust B. 2011. The activity profile in international Taekwondo competition is modulated by weight category. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 6 :344-357 >Link

Jeong T-S, Reilly T, Morton J, Bae S-W, Drust B. 2011. Quantification of the physiological loading of one week of "pre-season" and one week of "in-season" training in professional soccer players. J Sports Sci, 29 :1161-1166 >DOI >Link

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Morris CJ, Chester N, Atkinson G. 2011. Diurnal variation in the salivary melatonin responses to exercise: relation to exercise-mediated tachycardia. Eur J Appl Physiol, 111 :2707-2714 >DOI >Link

Bartlett JD, Close GL, MacLaren DPM, Gregson W, Drust B, Morton JP. 2011. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence. J Sports Sci, 29 :547-553 >DOI >Link

Weston M, Drust B, Gregson W. 2011. Intensities of exercise during match-play in FA Premier League referees and players. J Sports Sci, 29 :527-532 >DOI >Link

Clarke ND, Maclaren DPM, Reilly T, Drust B. 2011. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol, 111 :1447-1455 >DOI >Link

Weston M, Drust B, Atkinson G, Gregson W. 2011. Variability of soccer referees' match performances. Int J Sports Med, 32 :190-194 >DOI >Link

Clarke ND, Maclaren DPM, Reilly T, Drust B. 2010. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat European Journal of Applied Physiology, :1-9

Dunn K, Drust B, Richardson D. 2010. I just want to watch the match! A reflective account of men's health themed match day events at an English Premier League Football Club Journal of Men's Health, 7 :323-323 >DOI

Drust B. 2010. Performance analysis research: meeting the challenge. J Sports Sci, 28 :921-922 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Waterhouse J. 2010. Exercise at altitude. Scott Med J, 55 :31-34 >DOI >Link

Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, Salvo VD. 2010. Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. Int J Sports Med, 31 :237-242 >DOI >Link

Wilson D, Drust B, Reilly T. 2009. Is diurnal lifestyle altered during Ramadan in professional Muslim athletes? BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM RESEARCH, 40 :385-397 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Morton JP. 2009. PROMOTING ENDURANCE TRAINING ADAPTATIONS WITH NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTIONS: THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF 'LOW CARBOHYDRATE' TRAINING KINESIOLOGY, 41 :19-24 >Link

Croft L, Bartlett JD, MacLaren DPM, Reilly T, Evans L, Mattey DL, Nixon NB, Drust B, Morton JP. 2009. High-intensity interval training attenuates the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6 in response to acute exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 34 :1098-1107 >DOI >Link

Bridge CA, Jones MA, Drust B. 2009. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 4 :485-493 >Link

Morton JP, Kayani AC, McArdle A, Drust B. 2009. The exercise-induced stress response of skeletal muscle, with specific emphasis on humans. Sports Med, 39 :643-662 >DOI >Link

Morris C, Atkinson G, Drust B, Marrin K, Gregson W. 2009. Human core temperature responses during exercise and subsequent recovery: an important interaction between diurnal variation and measurement site. Chronobiol Int, 26 :560-575 >DOI >Link

Morton JP, Croft L, Bartlett JD, Maclaren DPM, Reilly T, Evans L, McArdle A, Drust B. 2009. Reduced carbohydrate availability does not modulate training-induced heat shock protein adaptations but does upregulate oxidative enzyme activity in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985), 106 :1513-1521 >DOI >Link

Di Salvo V, Gregson W, Atkinson G, Tordoff P, Drust B. 2009. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med, 30 :205-212 >DOI >Link

Altareki N, Drust B, Atkinson G, Cable T, Gregson W. 2009. Effects of environmental heat stress (35 degrees C) with simulated air movement on the thermoregulatory responses during a 4-km cycling time trial. Int J Sports Med, 30 :9-15 >DOI >Link

Kelly DM, Drust B. 2009. The effect of pitch dimensions on heart rate responses and technical demands of small-sided soccer games in elite players. J Sci Med Sport, 12 :475-479 >DOI >Link

Clarke ND, Drust B, Maclaren DPM, Reilly T. 2008. Fluid provision and metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 104 :1069-1077 >DOI >Link

Atkinson G, Batterham A, Drust B. 2008. Is it time for sports performance researchers to adopt a clinical-type research framework? Int J Sports Med, 29 :703-705 >DOI >Link

Morton JP, Maclaren DPM, Cable NT, Campbell IT, Evans L, Kayani AC, McArdle A, Drust B. 2008. Trained men display increased basal heat shock protein content of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 40 :1255-1262 >DOI >Link

Reilly T, Drust B, Clarke N. 2008. Muscle fatigue during football match-play. Sports Med, 38 :357-367 >Link

Palomero J, Broome CS, Rasmussen P, Mohr M, Nielsen B, Nybo L, McArdle A, Drust B. 2008. Heat shock factor activation in human muscles following a demanding intermittent exercise protocol is attenuated with hyperthermia. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 193 :79-88 >DOI >Link

Atkinson G, Barr D, Chester N, Drust B, Gregson W, Reilly T, Waterhouse J. 2008. Bright light and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Int J Sports Med, 29 :188-193 >DOI >Link

Cable NT, Drust B, Gregson W. 2007. The impact of altered climatic conditions and altitude on circadian physiology Physiology and Behaviour, 90 :267-273

Jones S, Drust B. 2007. Physiological and technical demands of 4 v 4 and 8 v 8 games in elite youth soccer Kinesiology, 39 :150-156

Morton JP, MacLaren DP, McArdle A, Drust B. 2007. Time-course and differential expression of heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle following non-damaging treadmill exercise: is heat a mechanism of activation? JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS MEDICINE, 56 :36-36 >Link

Drust B, Atkinson G, Reilly T. 2007. Future perspectives in the evaluation of the physiological demands of soccer. Sports Med, 37 :783-805 >Link

Morton JP, Maclaren DPM, Cable NT, Campbell IT, Evans L, Bongers T, Griffiths RD, Kayani AC, McArdle A, Drust B. 2007. Elevated core and muscle temperature to levels comparable to exercise do not increase heat shock protein content of skeletal muscle of physically active men. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 190 :319-327 >DOI >Link

Cable NT, Drust B, Gregson WA. 2007. The impact of altered climatic conditions and altitude on circadian physiology. Physiol Behav, 90 :267-273 >DOI >Link

Altareki NA, Drust B, Cable NT, Atkinson G, Gregson WA. 2006. The Effects of Environmental Heat Stress (35 degrees C) on Simulated 4 km Cycling Time-Trial Performance MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 38 :S354-S354 >DOI >Link

Barr D, Chester N, Drust B, Edwards B, Gregson W, Atkinson G. 2006. Manipulation of the Light-Dark Schedule Alters the Thermoregulatory Responses to Exercise in the Heat MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 38 :S355-S356 >Link

Gregson WA, Altareki NA, Cable NT, Atkinson G, Drust B. 2006. Telemetry Pill and Oesophageal Assessment of Core Temperature during Moderate Duration, High Intensity Exercise MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 38 :S466-S466 >DOI >Link

Reilly T, Atkinson G, Gregson W, Drust B, Forsyth J, Edwards B, Waterhouse J. 2006. Chronobiolgical considerations related to physical exercise Clinical Therapy, 157 :249-264

Peiser B, Reilly T, Atkinson G, Drust B, Waterhouse J. 2006. Seasonal changes and physiological responses: Their impact on activity, health, exercise and athletic performance INTERNATIONAL SPORTMED JOURNAL, 7 :16-32 >Link

Parry L, Drust B. 2006. Is injury the major cause of elite soccer players being unavailable to train and play during the competitive season? PHYSICAL THERAPY IN SPORT, 7 :58-64 >DOI >Link

Reilly T, Drust B, Gregson W. 2006. Thermoregulation in elite athletes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 9 :666-671 >DOI >Link

Reilly T, Atkinson G, Gregson W, Drust B, Forsyth J, Edwards B, Waterhouse J. 2006. Some chronobiological considerations related to physical exercise. Clin Ter, 157 :249-264 >Link

Atkinson G, Drust B, George K, Reilly T, Waterhouse J. 2006. Chronobiological considerations for exercise and heart disease. Sports Med, 36 :487-500 >Link

Morton JP, MacLaren DPM, Cable NT, Bongers T, Griffiths RD, Campbell IT, Evans L, Kayani A, McArdle A, Drust B. 2006. Time course and differential responses of the major heat shock protein families in human skeletal muscle following acute nondamaging treadmill exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 101 :176-182 >DOI >Link

Mohr M, Rasmussen P, Drust B, Nielsen B, Nybo L. 2006. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 97 :89-95 >DOI >Link

Wells CM, Drust B, Edwards AM, Winter EM, Fysh ML. 2005. Pulmonary Kinetics Of Oxygen Uptake And Sport Specific Fitness In Soccer Players MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 37 :S448-S448 >DOI >Link

Clarke ND, Drust B, MacLaren DPM, Reilly T. 2005. Strategies for hydration and energy provision during soccer-specific exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 15 :625-640 >Link

Atkinson G, Holder A, Robertson C, Gant N, Drust B, Reilly T, Waterhouse J. 2005. Effects of melatonin on the thermoregulatory responses to intermittent exercise. J Pineal Res, 39 :353-359 >DOI >Link

Svensson M, Drust B. 2005. Testing soccer players. J Sports Sci, 23 :601-618 >DOI >Link

Gregson WA, Batterham A, Drust B, Cable NT. 2005. The influence of pre-warming on the physiological responses to prolonged intermittent exercise. J Sports Sci, 23 :455-464 >DOI >Link

Waterhouse J, Drust B, Weinert D, Edwards B, Gregson W, Atkinson G, Kao S, Aizawa S, Reilly T. 2005. The circadian rhythm of core temperature: origin and some implications for exercise performance. Chronobiol Int, 22 :207-225 >Link

Morton JP, Atkinson G, MacLaren DP, Cable NT, Gilbert G, Broome C, McArdle A, Drust B. 2005. Reliability of maximal muscle force and voluntary activation as markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol, 94 :541-548 >DOI >Link

Atkinson G, Drust B. 2005. Seasonal rhythms and exercise. Clin Sports Med, 24 :e25-xiii >DOI >Link

Drust B, Waterhouse J, Atkinson G, Edwards B, Reilly T. 2005. Circadian rhythms in sports performance--an update. Chronobiol Int, 22 :21-44 >Link

Drust B, Rasmussen P, Mohr M, Nielsen B, Nybo L. 2005. Elevations in core and muscle temperature impairs repeated sprint performance. Acta Physiol Scand, 183 :181-190 >DOI >Link

Atkinson G, Drust B, Reilly T, Waterhouse J. 2003. The relevance of melatonin to sports medicine and science. Sports Med, 33 :809-831 >Link

Drust B, Atkinson G, Gregson W, French D, Binningsley D. 2003. The effects of massage on intra muscular temperature in the vastus lateralis in humans. Int J Sports Med, 24 :395-399 >DOI >Link

Gregson WA, Drust B, Batterham A, Cable NT. 2002. The effects of pre-warming on the metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to prolonged submaximal exercise in moderate ambient temperatures. Eur J Appl Physiol, 86 :526-533 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Reilly T, Cable NT. 2000. Physiological responses to laboratory-based soccer-specific intermittent and continuous exercise. J Sports Sci, 18 :885-892 >DOI >Link

Rienzi E, Drust B, Reilly T, Carter JE, Martin A. 2000. Investigation of anthropometric and work-rate profiles of elite South American international soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 40 :162-169 >Link

Drust B, Cable NT, Reilly T. 2000. Investigation of the effects of the pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 81 :11-17 >DOI >Link

Drust B, Reilly T, Rienzi E. 1998. Analysis of work rate in soccer SPORTS EXERCISE AND INJURY, 4 :151-155 >Link

Murtagh C, Nulty C, Vanrenterghem J, O'Boyle A, Morgans R, Drust B, Erskine RM. The neuromuscular determinants of unilateral jump performance in soccer players are direction-specific International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, >Link

Parnell D, Stratton, G , Drust B, Richardson D. Football in the Community Schemes: exploring the Effectiveness of an Intervention in Promoting Healthful Behaviour Change Soccer & Society, 14 >DOI

Conference Publication (journal proceedings)

Enright KJ, Morton JP, Drust B. 2017. The organisation of concurrent training and nutritional intake in English professional soccer clubs: A survey of the typical prescriptions during a one game match week World Conference on Science and Soccer (WCSS). Rennes, France

Enright KJ, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2017. Concurrent training and nutritional practices carried out by an English senior professional soccer team The 6th World Conference on Science and Soccer (WCSS). Rennes, France

Allan R, Sharples AP, Close G, Drust B, Shepherd S, Fraser W, Mawhinnney C, Hammond K, Morton J, Gregson W. 2016. The acute cold-induced increase in PGC-1α is partially mediated systemically through increased β-adrenergic stimulation European College of Sport Science

Hulton AT, Drust B. 2016. The Effects of Nitrate Gels on High-intensity Intermittent repeated sprint performance and recovery International Research in Science and Soccer II, World Conference on Science and Soccer

Enright K, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2015. The acute hormonal responses to two concurrent endurance and strength-training programmes in elite soccer players The 8th World congress in Science in football (WCSF). Copenhagen, Denmark.

Dickinson JW, Chester N, Hu J, Drust B, Loosemore M, Whyte G. 2013. Play On: The Impact Of Inhaled Salbutamol On Soccer Performance In Males And Females MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 60th Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine 45 :562-562 >Link

Whyte GP, Dickinson J, Chester N, Hu J, Drust B, Loosemore M. 2013. The Ergogenic And Pharmokinetics Impact Of Short Acting beta 2-agonist On 5 Km Time Trial Performance MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 60th Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine 45 :570-570 >Link

Enright K, Morton J, Iga J, Drust B. 2011. The effect of in-season concurrent soccer and strength-training sequence on muscle strength and morphology of elite soccer players The 16th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, (ECSS). Liverpool, England

Marrin K, Drust B, Gregson W, Morris C, Chester N, Atkinson G. 2010. Positive Relationship between Endogenous Melatonin and Core Temperature Responses to Exercise MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 57th Annual Meeting of the American-College-Sports-Medicine/Inaugural World Congress on Exercise is Medicine 42 :109-109 >Link

Drust B. 2010. ERGONOMICS AND FOOTBALL Anderson M. CONTEMPORARY ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN FACTORS 2010, Annual Conference of the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors :557-557 >Link

Jeong T-S, Reilly TP, Morton JP, Drust B. 2010. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF A LABORATORY-BASED SOCCER-SPECIFIC TRAINING SIMULATION ON A MOTORIZED TREADMILL Anderson M. CONTEMPORARY ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN FACTORS 2010, Annual Conference of the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors :596-597 >Link

Drust B, Morton J. 2008. PROMOTING ENDURANCE TRAINING ADAPTATIONS THROUGH NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTIONS: LOW-CARBOHYDRATE TRAINING? Milanovic D, Prot F. 5TH INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON KINESIOLOGY, PROCEEDINGS BOOK, 5th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology :65-65 >Link

Wells C, Drust B, Winter E, Fysh M. 2003. Asymmetry of oxygen uptake kinetic responses to the onset and offset of treadmill running JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, 12th Commonwealth International Sport Conference 21 :337-338 >Link

Gregson W, Batterham A, Drust B, Cable NT. 2002. The effects of pre-warming on the metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to prolonged intermittent exercise in moderate ambient temperatures JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES, Annual Conference of the British-Association-of-Sport-and-Exercise-Sciences (BASES) 20 :49-50 >Link

Other

Baumert P, Lake MJ, Stewart CE, Drust B, Erskine RM. 2016. Inter-individual variability in the response to maximal eccentric exercise EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 116 :2055-2056 >DOI >Link

Chapters

Drust B, Gregson W. 2013. Fitness testing Science and Soccer: Developing Elite Performers, Third Edition :43-64 9780203131862 >DOI

Drust B, Reilly T. Heart rate responses in children during soccer match-play Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Hughes M. Science and Football III :196-201 E and FN Spon. London

Drust B, Reilly T, Cable NT. Metabolic and physiological responses to a laboratory based soccer-specific intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill Spinks W, Reilly T, Murphy A. Science and Football IV :217-225 Routledge. London

Gregson W, Drust B, Batterham A, Cable NT. The influence of pre-warming on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise Reilly T, Cabri J, Araujo D. Science and Football V :377-385 Routledge. London

Svensson M, Conway P, Drust B, Reilly T. Performance on two soccer-specific high-intensity running protocols Science and Football VI :350-356 Routledge. London

Clarke ND, Drust B, MacLaren DPM, Reilly T. The impact of pre-cooling on soccer-specific exercise performed in the heat Reilly T, Korkusuz F. Science and Football VI :251-254 Routledge. London

Clarke ND, Blanchfield A, Drust B, MacLaren DPM, Reilly T. The effect of an intense period of fixtures on salivary cortisol and IGA concentrations in professional soccer players Drust B, Reilly T, Williams AM. International Research in Science and Soccer :101-108 Routledge. London

Clarke ND, Drust B, MacLaren DPM, Reilly T. Impact of combined carbohydrate ingestion on the metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise in the heat Drust B, Reilly T. International Research in Science and Soccer :157-165 Routledge. London

Svensson M, Drust B, Reilly T. The relationship between performance on the 15-30 and other soccer-specific protocols and work-rate in match-play Drust B, Reilly T, Williams AM. International Research in Science and Soccer :109-117 Routledge. London

Engagement & Impact

Conference organisation:

Conference name: World Congress of Science and Football, Position: Member of the Scientific Committee

Editorial boards:

Publication: Journal of Sports Sciences: Journal of Science and Medicine in Football, Position: Editorial Board

Publication: Journal of Sports Sciences: Journal of Science and Medicine in Football, Position: Editor in Chief

External collaboration:

Institution: NIke, Collaborator: Member of Expert Panel

Institution: English Football Association, Collaborator: Sport and Exercise Scientist for the Senior Men's National Team

Institution: Liverpool Football Club, Collaborator: Sport Science Consultant

External committees:

Committee name: Science and Football Steering Group, Organisation: Science and Football Steering Group, Position: Secretary

Committee name: Football Medicine Association Comittee, Organisation: Football Medicine Association, Position: Board Member

Membership of professional bodies:

Full member, The Physiological Society

Professional Member, British Association for Sport and Exercise Scientists