Liverpool Skylilne

School of Biological and Environmental Sciences

Emmeline Howarth


Non-human primates (NHPs) in research have been identified as a special case for welfare assessment. Currently there is a drive for establishing sustainable systems to monitor and improve the welfare of captive rhesus macaques. Previous work by the LJMU primate welfare research group at Centre for Macaques (CFM) has resulted in target training, to allow individual health and behaviour checks of socially-housed macaques, being embedded into staff and veterinary management practices. Through this established relationship, we have the opportunity to implement attention bias (AB), a simple measure of emotion in captive macaques, as a quick, easy and novel non-invasive method of welfare assessment. To validate this method, we will triangulate AB with endocrinological, thermographic and behavioural data.




2016, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, MSc
2015, Newcastle University, United Kingdom, BSc (Hons)
Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom, PhD


Conference publication

Howarth E, Engelhardt A, Wilding C, Bethell EJ. 2017. Attention Bias: A New Tool for Welfare Assessment in Captive Rhesus Primate Eye, Primate Society of Great Britain 50th Anniversary 123 :46-46

Engagement & Impact


Three Minute Thesis Faculty of Science Overall Winner, LJMU Faculty of Science. 2018

Conference presentation:

Attention bias: a new tool for welfare assessment in captive rhesus macaque (Fast-Fire Talk), Primate Society of Great Britain 50th Anniversary Conference, Royal Geographical Society, London, Oral presentation. 2017

Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) as a potential tool to assess the welfare of captive laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)., NC3Rs Primate Welfare Meeting, London, Poster presentation. 2017

Other Professional Activity:

Completed a Home Office certified training course in 2015 that would allow application for a personal licence category B for mice, rats, guinea pigs and old-world monkeys.