Liverpool Skylilne

Sport and Exercise Sciences

Dr Sam Shepherd

Dr Sam Shepherd

Telephone: 0151 904 6293

ORCID

Biography

Degrees

2012, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, PhD Exercise Metabolism
2008, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom, MSc Human Nutrition & Metabolism
2007, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, BSc Sport & Exercise Sciences

Academic appointments

Lecturer in Sport & Exercise Nutrition, Liverpool John Moores University, 2012 - present

Postgraduate training

PGCert Learning & Teaching in HE, United Kingdom, Liverpool John Moores University, 2013 - 2015

Publications

Journal article

Scott SN, Shepherd SO, Andrews RC, Narendran P, Purewal TS, Kinnafick F, Cuthbertson DJ, Atkinson-Goulding S, Noon T, Wagenmakers AJM, Cocks M. 2019. A Multidisciplinary Evaluation of a Virtually Supervised Home-Based High-Intensity Interval Training Intervention in People With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes care, DOI Author Url Public Url

Parry SA, Turner MC, Woods RM, James LJ, Ferguson RA, Cocks M, Whytock KL, Strauss JA, Shepherd SO, Wagenmakers AJM, van Hall G, Hulston CJ. 2019. High-fat overfeeding impairs peripheral glucose metabolism and muscle microvascular eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, DOI Author Url Public Url

Hammond KM, Sale C, Fraser W, Tang J, Shepherd SO, Strauss JA, Close GL, Cocks M, Louis J, Pugh J, Stewart C, Sharples AP, Morton JP. 2019. Post-exercise carbohydrate and energy availability induce independent effects on skeletal muscle cell signalling and bone turnover: implications for training adaptation Journal of Physiology, 597 :4779-4796 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Baumert P, Temple S, Stanley JM, Cocks M, Strauss JA, Shepherd SO, Drust B, Lake MJ, Stewart CE, Erskine RM. 2019. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery after strenuous exercise depends on skeletal muscle size and stem cell characteristics DOI

Scott SN, Shepherd SO, Hopkins N, Dawson EA, Strauss JA, Wright DJ, Cooper RG, Kumar P, Wagenmakers AJM, Cocks M. 2019. Home-HIT improves muscle capillarisation and eNOS/NAD(P)Hoxidase protein ratio in obese individuals with elevated cardiovascular disease risk. The Journal of Physiology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Routledge HE, Bradley WJ, Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Erskine RM, Close GL, Morton JP. 2019. Ultrasound Does Not Detect Acute Changes in Glycogen in Vastus Lateralis of Man. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, DOI Author Url Public Url

Hesketh K, Shepherd SO, Strauss JA, Low DA, Cooper RG, Wagenmakers AJM, Cocks M. 2019. Passive Heat Therapy in Sedentary Humans Increases Skeletal Muscle Capillarisation and eNOS Content but Not Mitochondrial Density or GLUT4 Content. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, DOI Author Url Public Url

Hearris MA, Hammond KM, Seaborne RA, Stocks B, Shepherd SO, Philp A, Sharples AP, Morton JP, Louis JB. 2019. Graded reductions in pre-exercise muscle glycogen impair exercise capacity but do not augment cell skeletal muscle signalling: implication for CHO periodisation Journal of Applied Physiology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Morris AS, Murphy R, Shepherd S, Healy G, Edwardson C, Graves L. 2019. A multi-component intervention to sit less and move more in a contact centre setting: A feasibility study BMC Public Health, DOI Author Url Public Url

Seaborne RA, Strauss J, Cocks M, Shepherd S, O'Brien TD, van Someren KA, Bell PG, Murgatroyd C, Morton JP, Stewart CE, Mein CA, Sharples AP. 2018. Methylome of human skeletal muscle after acute & chronic resistance exercise training, detraining & retraining Scientific Data, 5 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Scott SN, Cocks MS, Andrews RC, Narendran P, Purewal TS, Cuthbertson DJ, Wagenmakers AJM, Shepherd SO. 2018. Hit Improves Aerobic Capacity Without a Detrimental Decline in Blood Glucose in People with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Scott SN, Cocks M, Andrews RC, Narendran P, Purewal TS, Cuthbertson DJ, Wagenmakers AJM, Shepherd SO. 2018. Fasted High-Intensity Interval and Moderate-Intensity Exercise do not Lead to Detrimental 24-Hour Blood Glucose Profiles. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Morris AS, Murphy RC, Shepherd S, Graves LEF. 2018. Multi-stakeholder perspectives of factors that influence contact centre call agent’s workplace physical activity and sedentary behaviour International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Whytock KL, Shepherd SO, Wagenmakers AJM, Strauss JA. 2018. Hormone-sensitive lipase preferentially redistributes to lipid droplets associated with perilipin-5 in human skeletal muscle during moderate-intensity exercise JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 596 :2077-2090 DOI Author Url Public Url

Impey SG, Hammond KM, Naughton R, Langan-Evans C, Shepherd SO, Sharples AP, Cegielski J, Smith K, Jeromson S, Hamilton DL, Close GL, Morton JP. 2018. Whey Protein Augments Leucinemia and Post-Exercise p70S6K1 Activity Compared to a Hydrolysed Collagen Blend When in Recovery From Training With Low Carbohydrate Availability International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 0 :1-26 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Strauss JA, Willems MET, Shepherd SO. 2018. New Zealand blackcurrant extract enhances fat oxidation during prolonged cycling in endurance-trained females. European Journal of Applied Physiology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Kinnafick F-E, Thogersen-Ntoumani C, Shepherd SO, Wilson OJ, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2018. In It Together: A Qualitative Evaluation of Participant Experiences of a 10-Week, Group-Based, Workplace HIIT Program for Insufficiently Active Adults JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY, 40 :10-19 DOI Author Url Public Url

Seaborne RA, Strauss J, Cocks M, Shepherd S, O'Brien TD, van Someren KA, Bell PG, Murgatroyd C, Morton JP, Stewart CE, Sharples AP. 2018. Human Skeletal Muscle Possesses an Epigenetic Memory of Hypertrophy Scientific Reports, 8 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Meikle PJ, Mellett NA, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2017. Lipid droplet remodelling and reduced muscle ceramides following sprint interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training in obese males INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, 41 :1745-1754 DOI Author Url Public Url

Srisawat K, Shepherd SO, Lisboa PJ, Burniston JG. 2017. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Proteomics Literature on the Response of Human Skeletal Muscle to Obesity/Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Versus Exercise Training. Proteomes, 5 DOI Author Url Public Url

Whytock KL, Jevons EFP, Strauss JA, Shepherd SO. 2017. Under the microscope: insights into limb-specific lipid droplet metabolism. J Physiol, DOI Author Url

Bradley WJ, Hannon MP, Benford V, Morehen JC, Twist C, Shepherd S, Cocks M, Impey SG, Cooper RG, Morton JP, Close GL. 2017. Metabolic demands and replenishment of muscle glycogen after a rugby league match simulation protocol. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20 :878-883 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shepherd SO, Strauss JA, Wang Q, Dube JJ, Goodpaster B, Mashek DG, Chow LS. 2017. Training alters the distribution of perilipin proteins in muscle following acute free fatty acid exposure JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 595 :5587-5601 DOI Author Url Public Url

Allan R, Sharples AP, Close GL, Drust B, Shepherd SO, Dutton J, Morton JP, Gregson W. 2017. Post-exercise cold-water immersion modulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α mRNA expression in immersed and non-immersed limbs: evidence of systemic regulation Journal of Applied Physiology, 123 :451-459 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Chow LS, Mashek DG, Wang Q, Shepherd SO, Goodpaster BH, Dube JJ. 2017. Effect of acute physiological free fatty acid elevation in the context of hyperinsulinemia on fiber type specific IMCL accumulation. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), :jap.00209.2017-jap.00209.2017 DOI Author Url Public Url

Bartlett DB, Shepherd SO, Wilson OJ, Adlan AM, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS, Lord JM. 2017. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY, DOI Author Url Public Url

Bradley WJ, Morehen JC, Haigh J, Clarke J, Donovan TF, Twist C, Cotton C, Shepherd S, Cocks M, Sharma A, Impey SG, Cooper RG, Maclaren DPM, Morton JP, Close GL. 2016. Muscle glycogen utilisation during Rugby match play: Effects of pre-game carbohydrate Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19 :1033-1038 DOI Author Url

Hammond KM, Impey SG, Currell K, Mitchell N, Shepherd SO, Jeromson S, Hawley JA, Close GL, Hamilton DL, Sharples AP, Morton JP. 2016. Post exercise high-fat feeding supresses p70S6K1 activity in human skeletal muscle Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48 :2108-2117 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Impey S, Hammond K, Shepherd S, Sharples AP, Stewart CE, Limb M, Smith K, Philp A, Jeromson S, Hamilton DL, Close GL, Morton JP. 2016. Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes Physiological Reports, 4 :e12803-e12803 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wagenmakers AJM, Strauss JA, Shepherd SO, Keske MA, Cocks M. 2016. Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 594 :2207-2222 DOI Author Url Public Url

Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Fisher JP, Ranasinghe A, Barker TA, Wagenmakers AJM. 2016. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have equal benefits on aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity, muscle capillarisation and endothelial eNOS/NAD(P)Hoxidase protein ratio in obese men JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 594 :2307-2321 DOI Author Url Public Url

Thøgersen-Ntoumani C, Shepherd SO, Ntoumanis N, Wagenmakers AJ, Shaw CS. 2016. Intrinsic motivation in two exercise interventions: Associations with fitness and body composition. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 35 :195-198 DOI Author Url Public Url

Graves LEF, Murphy RC, Shepherd SO, Cabot J, Hopkins ND. 2015. Evaluation of sit-stand workstations in an office setting: A randomised controlled trial BMC Public Health, 15 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shepherd SO, Wilson OJ, Taylor AS, Thogersen-Ntoumani C, Adlan AM, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2015. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health PLOS ONE, 10 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton KD, Witard OC, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2014. Resistance training increases skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown in type I and II fibres of sedentary males EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, 99 :894-908 DOI Author Url

Bradley H, Shaw CS, Worthington PL, Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Wagenmakers AJM. 2014. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: Effects of endurance and sprint interval training Physiological Reports, 2 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shaw CS, Clark JA, Shepherd SO. 2013. HSL and ATGL: The movers and shakers of muscle lipolysis Journal of Physiology, 591 :6137-6138 DOI Author Url

Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Fisher JP, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Tipton KD, Wagenmakers AJM. 2013. Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males. J Physiol, 591 :641-656 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton KD, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Burniston JG, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2013. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training increase net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown and expression of perilipin 2 and 5. J Physiol, 591 :657-675 DOI Author Url

Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Wagenmakers AJM, Hansen D, Dendale P, van Loon LJC. 2012. Prolonged exercise training increases intramuscular lipid content and perilipin 2 expression in type I muscle fibers of patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 303 :E1158-E1165 DOI Author Url

Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton KD, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Burniston JG, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. Preferential utilization of perilipin 2-associated intramuscular triglycerides during 1 h of moderate-intensity endurance-type exercise. Exp Physiol, 97 :970-980 DOI Author Url

Cocks M, Shepherd SO, Shaw CS, Achten J, Costa ML, Wagenmakers AJM. Immunofluorescence microscopy to assess enzymes controlling nitric oxide availability and microvascular blood flow in muscle. Microcirculation, 19 :642-651 DOI Author Url

Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Fisher JP, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Tipton KD, Wagenmakers AJM. Effect of Resistance Training on Microvascular Density and eNOS Content in Skeletal Muscle of Sedentary Men MICROCIRCULATION, 21 :738-746 DOI Author Url Public Url

Conference publication

Shepherd S, Jevons EFP, Strauss JA, Gejl KD, Jensen K, Hvid LG, Frandsen U, Sahlin K, Ortenblad N. 2019. Acute Carbohydrate Restriction During Recovery From Prolonged Exercise Enhances Intramuscular Triglyceride Resynthesis MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM) 51 :382-382 DOI Author Url

Strauss JA, Shepherd DA, Jevons EFP, Macey M, Shepherd SO. 2019. Bodipy Is Superior To Oil-red-O For Detecting And Quantifying Intramuscular Triglyceride In Human Skeletal Muscle MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM) 51 :719-719 DOI Author Url

Macey M, Strauss JA, Shepherd SO. 2019. Fibre and region-specific differences in the subcellular distribution and morphology of lipid droplets in the skeletal muscle of trained, sedentary, obese males with Type 2 diabetes DIABETIC MEDICINE, 36 :49-49 Author Url

Gavin D, Millard A, Cochrane M, Hopkins N, Low D, Murphy R, Shepherd S, Watson P, Timpson H, Jones L, Haycox A, Collins B, Healy G, Edwardson C, Dunstan D, Graves L. 2018. Multi-level workplace intervention to improve cardiovascular outcomes in contact centre call agents: Study protocol JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 15 :S155-S155 Author Url

Morris A, Murphy R, Shepherd S, Healy G, Edwardson C, Graves L. 2018. Move More, Sit Less: Using the MRC framework to develop a multi-level workplace intervention within a contact centre setting JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 15 :S155-S155 Author Url

Shepherd S, Cocks M, Ranasinghe A, Barker T, McClean A, Wagenmakers AJM, Shaw CS. 2014. High intensity interval and traditional endurance training both increase insulin sensitivity, V̇O2peak and skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and perilipin 5 content in sedentary obese males Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 63 :163 DOI

Shepherd S, Wilson O, Bradley H, Clark J, Cocks M, Thogersen-Ntoumani C, Taylor A, Anton W, Shaw C. 2013. Group-based High Intensity Interval Training Improves Adherence and Reduces Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors in Sedentary Individuals MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 60th Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine 45 :509-509 Author Url

Engagement & Impact

Research Grants Awarded:

Dunhill Medical Trust, Understanding the role of obesity in the deterioration of skeletal muscle mass and quality in old age: New mechanistic insights, PI: Dr Leigh Breen (University of Birmingham), Prof Jamie McPhee (MMU), Prof Janice Thompson (University of Birmingham), Prof Jan Boren (University of Gothenburg), Dr Joachim Nielsen (University of Southern Denmark), Grant value (£): 228,342, Duration of research project: 3 years. 2018

Diabetes UK, Inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis to enhance the effectiveness of a walking programme to improve insulin sensitivity in people with prediabetes, Professor Anton Wagenmakers (LJMU), Grant value (£): 97,888, Duration of research project: 3 years. 2017

Liverpool John Moores University - PhD Scholarship, High intensity interval training to improve glucose control in diabetes, Dr Matthew Cocks (Liverpool John Moores University), Prof Anton Wagenmakers (Liverpool John Moores University), Grant value (£): 57285, Duration of research project: 3 years. 2014

Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation, Is high intensity interval training an efficient and effective form of exercise for people with type 1 diabetes?, Dr Matthew Cocks (LJMU), Prof Anton Wagenmakers (LJMU), Dr Parth Narendran (Uni of Birmingham), Dr Rob Andrews (Uni of Bristol), Dr Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani (Curtin Uni, Aus), Dr Ian Gallen (Royal Berkshire Hospital), Grant value (£): 19,811, Duration of research project: 12 months. 2014

Society for Endocrinology, Use of high-fat overfeeding to determine the early molecular changes in skeletal muscle that contribute to insulin resistance, Grant value (£): 9960, Duration of research project: 12 monrhs. 2014

Physiological Society, Summer studentship: Visualisation of SNAP23 translocation in skeletal muscle in response to glucose feeding using immunofluorescence microscopy, Grant value (£): 1,200, Duration of research project: 10 weeks. 2014

Teaching qualification:

Postgraduate Certificate in Learning & Teaching in HE. 2015

Award:

Resistance training increases skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown in type I and II fibres of sedentary males, European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Young Investigator Award. 2014

High intensity interval and traditional endurance training both increase insulin sensitivity, VO2peak and skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and perilipin 5 content in sedentary obese males, European College of Sport Science (ECSS) Young Investigator Award. 2013

Preferential utilisation of perilipin 2 associated intramuscular triglycerides during one hour of moderate intensity endurance-type exercise, Physiological Society, Poster Communication (1st place). 2011

Preferential utilisation of perilipin 2 associated intramuscular triglycerides during one hour of moderate intensity endurance-type exercise, Physiological Society - Poster Prize (1st place). 2011