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Humanities and Social Science

Dr James Crossland

Dr James Crossland

Telephone: 0151 231 3339

Biography

I am a Reader in International History, whose present research interests lie in the history of terrorism, panics and propaganda. I am also a specialist in the history of international humanitarian law and the Red Cross movement, in particular during its formative years (1860s-1914).

My most recent monograph, 'War, Law and Humanity: The Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914' (Bloomsbury, 2018) was the first comprehensive history of the transatlantic responses of humanitarian groups, army surgeons, international lawyers and pacifists to the changing nature of warfare in the decades leading up to the First World War. Regarded by one reviewer as a 'fascinating read' that 'persuasively demonstrates that there was no monolithic humanitarian sensibility in the long nineteenth century', the book encapsulates the findings of a multi-year project that was focused on the politics and propaganda behind humanitarianism and military medicine, funded by both the Murdoch Distinguished Collaborator Fund and the British Academy. This project began with my first monograph, 'Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945' (Palgrave, 2014). This was a study of Britain's humanitarian policy and the politicisation of international humanitarian law during the Second World War, which was accompanied by a range of articles examining the neutrality of the Red Cross, its suspected ties to intelligence services, and the related history of POW treatment. Crowning my years of research into the history of the Red Cross and military medicine is the recent release of 'The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning Points' (Manchester University Press, 2020), a compilation of essays on the history of the movement by leading scholars in the fields of medical history and humanitarian studies, which I co-edited with Prof. Melanie Oppenheimer (Flinders) and Prof. Neville Wylie (Stirling). I am also on the advisory board of Prof Wylie and Prof Oppenheimer's 'Resilient Humanitarianism' project, an international collaboration, funded by the Australian Research Council, which seeks to map the understudied history of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Having completed my research on the Red Cross movement, I am currently engaged in two new research projects. The first is focused on the impact of fear narratives and fake news on the transatlantic world during the late nineteenth century. This project has commenced with a recently published article on the forgotten French invasion scare of 1858 in Britain, and will be continued by my convening, in 2021, of an international conference at LJMU on the study of invasion scares, national anxieties and "future war" panics during the fin de siècle. As part of this project, I am also presently writing my third monograph, 'The Rise of Devils', which chronicles the impact of societal anxieties on the development of international terrorism during the late nineteenth century.

My second project is a study of British intelligence and the development of strategic propaganda during the 1930s and 1940s, from which the key output will be a biography of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, the wartime head of the clandestine propaganda organisation, the Political Warfare Executive.

I lead the following modules:
The Age of Terror, 1850-1914 (Level 5)
Laws of War (Level 6)
The War/Peace Cycle (Level 7)

Degrees

2010, Murdoch University, Australia, PhD
2007, University of Western Australia, Australia, BA Hons

Publications

Highlighted publications

Crossland J. 2020. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning "Points Crossland JN, Wylie N, Oppenheimer M. , eds. (Manchester University Press) 9781526133519

Crossland JN. 2018. War, Law and Humanity: the Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914. (Bloomsbury) 9781350041233

Crossland J. 2014. Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 (Palgrave) 978-1-137-39957-1

Other

Crossland JN. 2020. 'Car Bombs, Anarchists, Psychics and Red Scares: Reflections on a Terrorist “Spectacular” of 100 Years Ago' History Today, 70

Crossland JN, Lund Rønnebu G. 'Symbol or Shield? The Red Cross and the Invasion and Occupation of Norway, 1940-1945', War, Semiotics and Semantics (Forthcoming, Routledge: 2020)

Book

Crossland J. 2020. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning "Points Crossland JN, Wylie N, Oppenheimer M. , eds. (Manchester University Press) 9781526133519

Crossland JN. 2018. War, Law and Humanity: the Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914. (Bloomsbury) 9781350041233

Crossland J. 2014. Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 (Palgrave) 978-1-137-39957-1

Chapters

Crossland JN. 2020. 'The Americans Lead the Way: The United States Sanitary Commission and the Development of the Red Cross, 1861-1871' in Crossland J, Wylie N, Oppenheimer, eds. M. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning Points (Manchester University Press)

Journal article

Crossland JN. 2019. 'Fearing for Merseyside: Liverpool and the French Invasion Scare, 1858-1859', Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 168 DOI Public Url

Crossland JN. 2018. 'Fake News is Old News: Britain's Psychological Warfare Campaign during the Second World War' History Today, 68 Public Url

Crossland JN, Wylie N. 2016. The Korean War and the Post-war Prisoner of War Regime, 1945–1956 War in History, :439-456 DOI Author Url Public Url

Crossland JN. The Mutiny that Never Was: The Special Operations Executive and the Failure of Operation ‘Kitchenmaid’ Intelligence and National Security, :808-823 DOI

w/ Edele M, Finaldi G, crossland J. 'War and Peace, Barbarism and Civilization' Special Edition of the Australian Journal of Politics and History (editor) Crossland JN. Australian Journal of Politics and History,

Crossland JN. A Man of Peaceable Intent: Burckhardt, the British and Red Cross Neutrality during the Second World War Historical Research, :165-182 DOI

Crossland JN. Expansion, Suspicion and the Development of the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 Australian Journal of Politics and History, :381-392 DOI

Crossland JN. Beyond the Wire: Allied POWs in the Second World War, the POW 'myth' and Future Realities European History Quarterly, :662-669

Conference publication

Crossland J, Edele M, Finaldi G. 2012. War and Peace, Barbarism and Civilization in Modern Europe and Its Empires Crossland JN. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 58 (2012) DOI

Engagement & Impact

Conference organisation:

Britain Afraid: Imperial Insecurities and National Fears, 1798-1945 - LJMU (scheduled for June 2020, postponed until June 2021), Convener. 2021

Histories of the Red Cross Movement Since 1919 - International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (June 2019), Convener. 2019

Histories of the Red Cross: Continuities and Change Conference - Flinders University (Sep 2016), Convener. 2016

Other invited event:

'Truth, Lies and History: Being an Historian in the Age of Fake News', Rylands Library, Manchester, Panel discussion for Institute of Historical Research (25 June 2019). 2019

Research Grants Awarded:

British Academy, 'Humanizing Hell: The International History of the United States Sanitary Commission, 1861-1871', Grant value (£): 6,952. 2018

Murdoch Distinguished Collaborator Fund, 'Humanitarian Diplomacy, 1864-1945', Prof Nevile Wylie, Grant value (£): 15,000, Duration of research project: 3 years. 2013

Media Coverage:

http://davidswanson.org/talk-nation-radio-james-crossland-on-war-reformers-and-war-abolishers/, Interview discussing 'War, Law and Humanity' – Talk Nation Radio US, 27 November 2018.

http://ww2podcast.com/, Interview discussing blockade during the Second World War - WW2 Podcast, 15 Dec 2018.

http://www.merseysideskeptics.org.uk/skeptics-in-the-pub/, Invited Talk on 'Fake News is Old News' – Skeptics Society, 20 September 2018.

https://anchor.fm/1823podcast/episodes/Faking-it-e6ehm4, Interview on 'Fake News in History' – 1823 Podcast, 11 October 2019.

https://newbooksnetwork.com/james-crossland-war-law-and-humanity-the-campaign-to-control-warfare-1853-1914-bloomsbury-2018/, Interview discussing 'War, Law and Humanity' - New Books Network, 27 May 2019.

https://uk.news.yahoo.com/syria-apos-white-helmets-long-094235339.html?guccounter=1, 'Syria's White Helmets and the History of Humanitarian Relief' – Yahoo News, 14 August 2018.

https://worldbeyondwar.org/regulating-apocalypse/, Review and Reflection on 'War, Law and Humanity' – World Beyond War, 8 November 2018.

https://www.historytoday.com/james-crossland/fake-news-old-news, 'Fake News is Old News' – History Today, 23 October 2018.

https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/views/analysis/syrias-white-helmets-and-the-long-history-of-attacking-wartime-humanitarians-862340.html, 'Syria's White Helmets and the History of Humanitarian Relief' – Irish Examiner, 15 August 2018.

https://www.ljmu.ac.uk/podcast, Interview on 'The Forgotten People of the War' – 1823 Podcast, 14 November 2018.

https://www.thirdsector.co.uk/red-cross-workers-suspected-german-spies-second-world-war-book-reveals/communications/article/1230569, 'New book reveals Red Cross workers suspected of spying for Germany' – Third Sector Magazine, 10 February 2014.

https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/red-cross-workers-suspected-german-spies-second-world-war.html, 'Red Cross Workers suspected of being German Spies in WWII' – WarHistoryOnline, 15 February 2014.

Membership of professional bodies:

Fellow, Royal Historical Society, (RHS).

Member, Australian Association for European History.

Member, Economic History Society.

Member, Humanitarian Working Histories Group (HWH).

Member, Invasion History Network, https://invasionnetwork.wordpress.com/.

Member, Voluntary Action History Society (VAHS).

External committees:

Resilient Humanitarianism: The League of Red Cross Societies and Red Crescent Societies, 1919-1991, University of Stirling, University of Hull, Flinders University, Independent Expert on Advisory Board, https://sites.flinders.edu.au/resilient-humanitarianism/.

Editorial boards:

The Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Editorial board member.