Dr James Crossland

Humanities and Social Science

I am a Reader in International History, whose present research interests lie in the history of terrorism, panics and propaganda. I am also a specialist in the history of international humanitarian law and the Red Cross movement, in particular during its formative years (1860s-1914).

I am currently completing my third book, 'The Rise of Devils' (Manchester University Press, 2022) which examines the development of international terrorism across the transatlantic world during the late nineteenth century. This book is part of a wider project that focuses on the political and societal impacts of fear narratives and fake news during the period of 1850s-1914. This project commenced in 2019 with articles on the forgotten French invasion scare of 1858 in Britain (published 2019), and the dissemination of the greatly-feared terrorist superweapon - the "Orsini Bomb" - across the transatlantic world (currently under review with 'Terrorism and Political Violence' journal). The project will be further complemented in 2022 by my convening of an international conference at LJMU on the study of invasion scares, "future war" fears, national anxieties and terrorism panics during the fin de siècle. The media engagement to date on this project, combined with plans for further events upon publication of 'The Rise of Devils', will form the basis of an Impact Case Study for the post 2021 REF Cycle.

My second project in development is a study of British intelligence and the evolution of strategic propaganda during the 1930s and 1940s, from which the key output will be a biography of an historical figure whom I have long had a deep interest in - Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, the wartime head of the clandestine propaganda organisation, the Political Warfare Executive.

Prior to engaging in these projects, I spent the better part of a decade researching the history of the Red Cross movement and the development of international humanitarian law. My primary work from these years of research was 'War, Law and Humanity: The Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914' (Bloomsbury, 2018), the first comprehensive history of the transatlantic responses of humanitarian groups, army surgeons, international lawyers and pacifists to the changing nature of warfare in the decades leading up to the First World War. Regarded by one reviewer as a 'fascinating read' that 'persuasively demonstrates that there was no monolithic humanitarian sensibility in the long nineteenth century', the book encapsulates the findings of a multi-year project that was focused on the politics and propaganda behind humanitarianism and military medicine, funded by both the Murdoch Distinguished Collaborator Fund and the British Academy.

In the course of this project, I also completed my first monograph, 'Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945' (Palgrave, 2014). This was a study of Britain's humanitarian policy and the politicisation of international humanitarian law during the Second World War, which was accompanied by a range of articles examining the neutrality of the Red Cross, its suspected ties to intelligence services, and the related history of POW treatment.

Crowning my years of research into the history of the Red Cross is the recent release of 'The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning Points' (Manchester University Press, 2020), a compilation of essays on the history of the movement by leading scholars in the fields of medical history and humanitarian studies, which I co-edited with Prof. Melanie Oppenheimer (Flinders) and Prof. Neville Wylie (Stirling).

I am also on the advisory board of the Australian Research Council-funded project 'Resilient Humanitarianism' project, an international collaboration that seeks to map the understudied history of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

I am open to PhD supervisions in areas relating to the history of terrorism/political violence, wartime humanitarianism, intelligence studies, propaganda and cultures of warfare from the period of 1700s-1940s.

I lead the following modules:
The Age of Terror, 1850-1914 (Level 5)
Laws of War (Level 6)
The War/Peace Cycle (Level 7)

Degrees

2010, Murdoch University, Australia, PhD
2007, University of Western Australia, Australia, BA Hons

Highlighted publications

Crossland J. 2020. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning "Points Crossland JN, Wylie N, Oppenheimer M. , eds. (Manchester University Press) 9781526133519 Publisher Url

Crossland JN. 2018. War, Law and Humanity: the Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914. Bloomsbury 9781350041233 Publisher Url

Crossland J. 2014. Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 Palgrave 978-1-137-39957-1 Publisher Url

Chapters

Crossland J, Rønnebu GL. 2021. 'The Red Cross “Shield”: The Semiotic Duality of the Red Cross during the Occupation of Norway, 1940-1945' Jacob F. War and Semiotics Signs, Communication Systems, and the Preparation, Legitimization, and Commemoration of Collective Mass Violence (Routledge) 9780367504069

Crossland JN. 2020. 'The Americans Lead the Way: The United States Sanitary Commission and the Development of the Red Cross, 1861-1871' in Crossland J, Wylie N, Oppenheimer, eds. M. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning Points (Manchester University Press) 978-1-5261-3351-9

Other

Crossland JN. 2020. 'The Enemies Within: Reflections on a Terrorist Spectacular' History Today, 70 Publisher Url

Book

Crossland J. 2020. The Red Cross Movement: Myths, Practices and Turning "Points Crossland JN, Wylie N, Oppenheimer M. , eds. (Manchester University Press) 9781526133519 Publisher Url

Crossland JN. 2018. War, Law and Humanity: the Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853-1914. Bloomsbury 9781350041233 Publisher Url

Crossland J. 2014. Britain and the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 Palgrave 978-1-137-39957-1 Publisher Url

Crossland J. The Rise of Devils: Fear, Insurgency and the Rise of Modern Terrorism (Manchester University Press: Forthcoming, 2022)

Journal article

Crossland JN. 2019. 'Fearing for Merseyside: Liverpool and the French Invasion Scare, 1858-1859', Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 168 :139-153 DOI Public Url

Crossland JN. 2018. 'Fake News is Old News: Britain's Psychological Warfare Campaign during the Second World War' History Today, 68 Public Url

Crossland JN, Wylie N. 2016. The Korean War and the Post-war Prisoner of War Regime, 1945–1956 War in History, :439-456 DOI Author Url Public Url

Crossland JN. 2013. 2013. The Mutiny that Never Was: The Special Operations Executive and the Failure of Operation ‘Kitchenmaid’ Intelligence and National Security, :808-823 DOI

w/ Edele M, Finaldi G, crossland J. 2012. , eds. 'War and Peace, Barbarism and Civilization' Special Edition of the Australian Journal of Politics and History (editor) Australian Journal of Politics and History,

Crossland JN. 2011. 2011. A Man of Peaceable Intent: Burckhardt, the British and Red Cross Neutrality during the Second World War Historical Research, :165-182 DOI

Crossland JN. 2010. 2010. Expansion, Suspicion and the Development of the International Committee of the Red Cross, 1939-1945 Australian Journal of Politics and History, :381-392 DOI

Crossland JN. 2009. 2009. Beyond the Wire: Allied POWs in the Second World War, the POW 'myth' and Future Realities European History Quarterly, :662-669

Conference publication

Crossland J, Edele M, Finaldi G. 2012. 2012. War and Peace, Barbarism and Civilization in Modern Europe and Its Empires Crossland JN. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 58 (2012) DOI

Conference organisation:

Britain Afraid: Imperial Insecurities and National Fears, 1798-1945 - LJMU (scheduled for June 2020, postponed until June 2022), Convener. 2022

Histories of the Red Cross Movement Since 1919 - International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (June 2019), Convener. 2019

Histories of the Red Cross: Continuities and Change Conference - Flinders University (Sep 2016), Convener. 2016

Media Coverage:

https://www.iheart.com/podcast/269-history-today-podcast-57856226/episode/terror-on-wall-street-70758352/, Podcast discussing "Enemies Within" article, 28 August 2020. 2020

https://worldbeyondwar.org/regulating-apocalypse/, Review and Reflection on 'War, Law and Humanity' – World Beyond War, 8 November 2018. 2018

https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/views/analysis/syrias-white-helmets-and-the-long-history-of-attacking-wartime-humanitarians-862340.html, 'Syria's White Helmets and the History of Humanitarian Relief' – Irish Examiner, 15 August 2018. 2018

https://uk.news.yahoo.com/syria-apos-white-helmets-long-094235339.html?guccounter=1, 'Syria's White Helmets and the History of Humanitarian Relief' – Yahoo News, 14 August 2018. 2018

http://davidswanson.org/talk-nation-radio-james-crossland-on-war-reformers-and-war-abolishers/, Interview discussing 'War, Law and Humanity' – Talk Nation Radio US, 27 November 2018.

http://ww2podcast.com/, Interview discussing blockade during the Second World War - WW2 Podcast, 15 Dec 2018.

http://www.merseysideskeptics.org.uk/skeptics-in-the-pub/, Invited Talk on 'Fake News is Old News' – Skeptics Society, 20 September 2018.

https://anchor.fm/1823podcast/episodes/Faking-it-e6ehm4, Interview on 'Fake News in History' – 1823 Podcast, 11 October 2019.

https://newbooksnetwork.com/james-crossland-war-law-and-humanity-the-campaign-to-control-warfare-1853-1914-bloomsbury-2018/, Interview discussing 'War, Law and Humanity' - New Books Network, 27 May 2019.

https://www.historytoday.com/james-crossland/fake-news-old-news, 'Fake News is Old News' – History Today, 23 October 2018.

https://www.ljmu.ac.uk/podcast, Interview on 'The Forgotten People of the War' – 1823 Podcast, 14 November 2018.

https://www.thirdsector.co.uk/red-cross-workers-suspected-german-spies-second-world-war-book-reveals/communications/article/1230569, 'New book reveals Red Cross workers suspected of spying for Germany' – Third Sector Magazine, 10 February 2014.

https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/red-cross-workers-suspected-german-spies-second-world-war.html, 'Red Cross Workers suspected of being German Spies in WWII' – WarHistoryOnline, 15 February 2014.

Other invited event:

'Truth, Lies and History: Being an Historian in the Age of Fake News', Rylands Library, Manchester, Panel discussion for Institute of Historical Research (25 June 2019). 2019

Research Grants Awarded:

British Academy, 'Humanizing Hell: The International History of the United States Sanitary Commission, 1861-1871', Grant value (£): 6,952. 2018

Murdoch Distinguished Collaborator Fund, 'Humanitarian Diplomacy, 1864-1945', Prof Nevile Wylie, Grant value (£): 15,000, Duration of research project: 3 years. 2013

Membership of professional bodies:

Fellow, Royal Historical Society, (RHS).

Member, Australian Association for European History.

Member, Economic History Society.

Member, Humanitarian Working Histories Group (HWH).

Member, Invasion History Network, https://invasionnetwork.wordpress.com/.

Member, Voluntary Action History Society (VAHS).

External committees:

Resilient Humanitarianism: The League of Red Cross Societies and Red Crescent Societies, 1919-1991, University of Stirling, University of Hull, Flinders University, Independent Expert on Advisory Board, https://sites.flinders.edu.au/resilient-humanitarianism/.

Editorial boards:

The Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Editorial board member.

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