Liverpool Skyline

Liverpool School of Art and Design

Prof Caroline Wilkinson

Prof Caroline Wilkinson

Telephone: 0151 904 1188



Caroline took up the post of Director of the School of Art & Design in October 2014. She has a background in art and science and her research and creative work sits at the forefront of art-science fusion and includes subjects as diverse as forensic art, human anatomy, medical art, face recognition, forensic science, anthropology, 3D visualisation, digital art and craniofacial identification.

Caroline is a graduate of the University of Manchester, where she also led the Unit of Art in Medicine 2000-2005 and received a NESTA fellowship to develop a 3D computerised facial reconstruction system for use in forensic and archaeological depiction. She moved to LJMU from the University of Dundee, where she was Head of Human Identification in the award-winning Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification. Her high profile facial depiction work includes facial depictions of Robert the Bruce, Richard III, St Nicolas, J.S. Bach and Mary, Queen of Scots.

Caroline Wilkinson is Director of the Face Lab, a LJMU research group based in Liverpool Science Park. The Face Lab carries out forensic/archaeological research and consultancy work and this includes craniofacial analysis, facial depiction and forensic art. Craniofacial analysis involves the depiction and identification of unknown bodies for forensic investigation or historical figures for archaeological interpretation. Face Lab research relates to facial identification, craniofacial reconstruction, preserved bodies and facial animation. Caroline is accredited as a forensic anthropologist Level I (craniofacial specialism) by the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI) and is an experienced forensic practitioner.

Caroline Wilkinson has collaborated frequently with museums and the media, especially relating to craniofacial depiction of people from the past. She has worked with the National Museum of Scotland, National Museum of Ireland, Museum of London, Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, Theban Mapping Project, Moesgaard Museum and the Fraunhofer Institute. She has current research collaborations with Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art & Design, Chonnam National University, the University of Liverpool and the University of Glasgow.


2001, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, PhD
1998, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, MPhil

Academic appointments

Director, Liverpool School of Art & Design, School of Art & Design, Liverpool John Moores University, 2014 - present
Director Face Lab, Art & Design, Liverpool John Moores University, 2014 - present
Professor and Head of Identification, Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification, University of Dundee, 2005 - 2014
Unit Manager and Research Fellow, Art in Medicine, University of Manchester, 2001 - 2005

Postgraduate training

Professional Diploma in Medical Art, UK, Medical Artists Education Trust, 1994 - 1995


Journal article

Roughley MA, Wilkinson CM. 2019. The Affordances of 3D and 4D Digital Technologies for Computerized Facial Depiction. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1138 :87-101 >DOI

Lopez-Capp TT, Rynn C, Wilkinson C, de Paiva LAS, Michel-Crosato E, Biazevic MGH. 2018. Sexing the cranium from the foramen magnum using discriminant analysis in a Brazilian sample Brazilian Dental Journal, 29 :592-598 >DOI >Public Url

Miranda GE, Wilkinson CM, Roughley M, Beaini TL, Melani RFH. 2018. Assessment of accuracy and recognition of three-dimensional computerized forensic craniofacial reconstruction PLoS ONE, 13 >DOI >Public Url

Houlton TMR, Wilkinson C. 2018. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads Forensic Science International, 286 :31-41 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Lopez-Capp TT, Rynn C, Wilkinson CM, Saavedra de Paiva LA, Michel-Crosato E, Biazevic MGH. 2018. Craniometric variation among Brazilian and Scottish populations: a physical anthropology approach Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, 17 >DOI >Public Url

Campomanes-Alvarez C, Ibáñez O, Cordón O, Wilkinson C. 2018. Hierarchical information fusion for decision making in craniofacial superimposition Information Fusion, 39 :25-40 >DOI >Public Url

Bulut O, Liu C-YJ, Koca F, Wilkinson C. 2017. Comparison of three-dimensional facial morphology between upright and supine positions employing three-dimensional scanner from live subjects LEGAL MEDICINE, 27 :32-37 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, Suppersberger SH, Ersland GA, Daux V, Parson W. 2017. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway PLoS ONE, 12 >DOI >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, Hadi H. 2017. Categorizing facial creases: A review Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 16 :180-185 >DOI >Public Url

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM. 2016. The unfamiliar face effect on forensic craniofacial reconstruction and recognition FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 269 :21-30 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, ferguson E. 2016. Juvenile age estimation from facial images SCIENCE & JUSTICE, >DOI >Public Url

Erolin C, Lamb C, Soames R, Wilkinson C. 2016. Does Virtual Haptic Dissection Improve Student Learning? A Multi-Year Comparative Study Westwood JD, Westwood SW, FellanderTsai L, Fidopiastis CM, Liu A, Senger S, Vosburgh KG. MEDICINE MEETS VIRTUAL REALITY 22, 220 :110-117 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Houlton TMR, Wilkinson CM. 2016. Recently identified features that help to distinguish ceremonial tsantsa from commercial shrunken heads JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE, 20 :660-670 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Damas S, Wilkinson C, Kahana T, Veselovskaya E, Abramov A, Jankauskas R, Jayaprakash PT, Ruiz E, Navarro F, Huete MI, Cunha E, Cavalli F, Clement J, Leston P, Molinero F, Briers T, Viegas F, Imaizumi K, Humpire D, Ibanez O. 2015. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (II): Best practices proposal FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 257 :504-508 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Strauss A, Oliveira RE, Bernardo DV, Salazar-Garcia DC, Talamo S, Jaouen K, Hubbe M, Black S, Wilkinson C, Richards MP, Araujo AGM, Kipnis R, Neves WA. 2015. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil) PLOS ONE, 10 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Wilkinson C, Lofthouse A. 2015. The use of craniofacial superimposition for disaster victim identification FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 252 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Huete MI, Ibáñez O, Wilkinson C, Kahana T. 2015. Past, present, and future of craniofacial superimposition: Literature and international surveys Legal Medicine, 17 :267-278 >DOI

Hwang H-S, Choe S-Y, Hwang J-S, Moon D-N, Hou Y, Lee W-J, Wilkinson C. 2015. Reproducibility of Facial Soft Tissue Thickness Measurements Using Cone-Beam CT Images According to the Measurement Methods JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 60 :957-965 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM, Hwang H-S, Lee S-M. 2015. Correlation Between Average Tissue Depth Data and Quantitative Accuracy of Forensic Craniofacial Reconstructions Measured by Geometric Surface Comparison Method JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 60 :572-580 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Kealy G, Gapert R, Buckley L, Cassidy M, Mcnulty J, Wright R, Foyle R, Meier-Augenstein W, Kemp H, Wilkinson C, Rynn C, Clifford S. 2014. Multi-disciplinary approach toward the identification of a human skull found 55 km off the Southeast Coast of Ireland :193-210 >DOI

Briggs M, Wilkinson C, Golash A. 2014. Digital multimedia books produced using iBooks Author for pre-operative surgical patient information Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 37 :59-64 >DOI >Public Url

Hadi H, Wilkinson CM. 2014. The post-mortem resilience of facial creases and the possibility for use in identification of the dead FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 237 >DOI >Link

Lee WJ, Yoon AY, Song MK, Wilkinson CM, Shin DH. 2014. The archaeological contribution of forensic craniofacial reconstruction to a portrait drawing of a Korean historical figure JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 49 :228-236 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Short LJ, Khambay B, Ayoub A, Erolin C, Rynn C, Wilkinson C. 2014. Validation of a computer modelled forensic facial reconstruction technique using CT data from live subjects: A pilot study FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 237 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson CM. 2014. A review of the changing culture and social context relating to forensic facial depiction of the dead. Forensic Science International, Volume 245 :95-100 >DOI >Public Url

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM, Hwang H-S. 2012. An Accuracy Assessment of Forensic Computerized Facial Reconstruction Employing Cone-Beam Computed Tomography from Live Subjects JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 57 :318-327 >DOI >Link

Hwang H-S, Park M-K, Lee W-J, Cho J-H, Kim B-K, Wilkinson CM. 2012. Facial Soft Tissue Thickness Database for Craniofacial Reconstruction in Korean Adults JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 57 :1442-1447 >DOI >Link

Needham C, Wilkinson C, Soames R. 2011. Virtual Reality Haptic Human Dissection Westwood JD, Westwood SW, FellanderTsai L, Haluck RS, Hoffman HM, Robb RA, Senger S, Vosburgh KG. MEDICINE MEETS VIRTUAL REALITY 18, 163 :397-399 >DOI >Link

Erolin C, Wilkinson C, Soames R. 2011. Virtual reality haptic dissection Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 34 :193-199 >DOI

Pueschel K, Saering D, Kaesemann P, Scheuermann S, Kreutz K, Ohlrogge S, Wittwer-Backofen U, Burrath S, Wilkinson C, Bauerochse A, Schultz M, Jopp E. 2011. Facial reconstruction of a severely fragmented bog body RECHTSMEDIZIN, 21 :221-224 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C, Evans R. 2011. Are facial image analysis experts any better than the general public at identifying individuals from CCTV images? (vol 49, pg 191, 2009) SCIENCE & JUSTICE, 51 :218-221 >DOI >Link

McKenna D, Wilkinson C, Ker J. 2010. Diagnostic recognition of facial changes associated with chronic conditions: Use of an elearning tool to enhance medical student education Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 33 :55-62 >DOI

Rynn C, Wilkinson CM, Peters HL. 2010. Prediction of nasal morphology from the skull FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 6 :20-34 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C. 2010. Facial reconstruction - anatomical art or artistic anatomy? JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, 216 :235-250 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Gibson SJ, Scandrett CM, Solomon CJ, Maylin MIS, Wilkinson CM. 2009. Computer assisted age progression FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 5 :174-181 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C, Evans R. 2009. Are facial image analysis experts any better than the general public at identifying individuals from CCTV images? SCIENCE & JUSTICE, 49 :191-196 >DOI >Link

Caldwell DH, Hall MA, Wilkinson CM. 2009. The Lewis Hoard of gaming pieces: A re-examination of their context, meanings, discovery and manufacture Medieval Archaeology, 53 :155-203 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Rynn C, Peters H, Taister M, Kau CH, Richmond S. 2006. A blind accuracy assessment of computer-modeled forensic facial reconstruction using computed tomography data from live subjects. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 2 :179-187 >DOI >Public Url

Rynn C, Wilkinson CM. 2006. Appraisal of traditional and recently proposed relationships between the hard and soft dimensions of the nose in profile AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 130 :364-373 >DOI >Link >Public Url

Wilkinson C. 2005. Computerized forensic facial reconstruction: A review of current systems Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 1 :173-177 >DOI

Brier B, Wilkinson C. 2004. A preliminary study on the accuracy of mummy portraits: Hierzu Tafel XXIII-XXIX Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 132 :107-111

Needham C, Wilkinson C, Knüsel CJ. 2003. Reconstructing visual manifestations of disease from archaeological human remains Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 26 :103-107 >DOI

Wilkinson CM, Mautner SA. 2003. Measurement of eyeball protrusion and its application in facial reconstruction JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 48 :12-16 >Link

Wilkinson CM, Motwani M, Chiang E. 2003. The relationship between the soft tissues and the skeletal detail of the mouth JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 48 :728-732 >Link

Wilkinson C, Neave R. 2003. The reconstruction of a face showing a healed wound JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 30 :1343-1348 >DOI >Link

Manley B, Eremin K, Shortland A, Wilkinson C. 2002. The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen. The Journal of audiovisual media in medicine, 25 :155-159

Manley B, Eremin K, Shortland A, Wilkinson C. 2002. The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 25 :155-159 >DOI

Wilkinson CM. 2002. In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for white British children JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 47 :459-465 >Link

Wilkinson C, Neave R. 2001. Skull re-assembly and the implications for forensic facial reconstruction Science and Justice - Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 41 :233-234 >DOI

Roughley M, Smith K, Wilkinson C. Investigating new areas of art-science practice-based research with the MA Art in Science programme at Liverpool School of Art and Design Higher Education Pedagogies, >DOI >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, Mackenzie S, Smith K. Faces of Merseyside: Exploring cognitive bias through facial averages Leonardo, >Public Url

Campomanes-Alvarez C, Martos-Fernandez R, Wilkinson CM, Ibanez O, Cordon O. Modeling skull-face anatomical/morphological correspondence for craniofacial superimposition-based identification IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, >DOI >Public Url

Lopez-Capp TT, Rynn C, Wilkinson CM, Saavedra de Paiva LA, Michel-Crosato E, Biazevic MGH. Discriminant analysis of mandibular measurements for the estimation of sex in a modern Brazilian sample International Journal of Legal Medicine, >DOI >Public Url

Mackenzie S, Wilkinson CM. Morphological and morphometric changes in the faces of female-to-male transsexual people International Journal of Transgenderism, 17 :1-10 >DOI >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, ibanez O, valsecchi A, cavalli F, Huete M, Campanones-Alvarez C, Vicente R, Navega MS, Ross A, Jankausas R, Imaizumi K, Hardiman R, Jayaprakash P, Ruiz E, Molinero F, Leston P, Veselovskaya E, Abramov A. Study on the criteria for assessing skull-face correspondence in craniofacial superimposition Legal Medicine, 23 :59-70 >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, Hadi H. Estimation and reconstruction of facial creases based on skull crease morphology Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, >DOI >Public Url

Wilkinson CM, Lee WJ, Oh CS, Yoo JA, Kim YS, Hong JH, Ju JO, Choi SJ, Lee SD, Shin DH. Bio-anthropological Studies on Human Skeletons from the 6th Century Tomb of Ancient Silla Kingdom in South Korea PLoS One, >Public Url

Wilkinson C. A review of forensic art Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science, :17-17 >DOI >Public Url


Roughley M, Wilkinson C. 2019. The affordances of 3D and 4D digital technologies for computerized facial depiction Rea P. Biomedical Visualisation 2 :87-101 Springer International Publishing 978-3-030-14226-1 >DOI >Public Url

Wilkinson CM. 2018. Archaeological Facial Depiction for People from the Past with Facial Differences Skinner P, Cock E. Approaching Facial Difference Past and Present Bloomsbury Publishing 9781350028296 >Public Url

Wilkinson CM. 2015. Craniofacial Analysis and Identification Valentine T, Davies JP. Forensic Facial Identification: Theory and Practice of Identification from Eyewitnesses, Composites and CCTV :93-126 John Wiley & Sons 978-1118469583

Wilkinson CM. 2014. The facial analysis of the Lewis Chess pieces Caldwell DH, Hall MA. The Lewis Chessmen: new perspectives :1-10 National Museums of Scotland. Edinburgh 978 1 905267 85 9

Richmond S, Beldie L, Lu Y, Middleton J, Walker B, Cronin A, Drage N, Zhurov A, Wilkinson C. 2013. Predicting and Managing Surgical Intervention in Craniofacial Disharmony-A Biomechanical Perspective Three-Dimensional Imaging for Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery :180-197 9781405162401 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Tillotson A. 2012. Post-mortem prediction of facial appearance Craniofacial Identification :166-183 9780521768627 >DOI

Wilkinson C. 2012. Juvenile facial reconstruction Craniofacial Identification :254-260 9780521768627 >DOI

Davis JP, Valentine T, Wilkinson C. 2012. Facial image comparison Craniofacial Identification :136-156 9780521768627 >DOI

Mahoney G, Wilkinson C. 2012. Computer-generated facial depiction Craniofacial Identification :222-237 9780521768627 >DOI

Wilkinson CM. 2008. The facial reconstruction of ancient Egyptians Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science :162-178 9780521865791 >DOI


Wilkinson C, Shrimpton S, Liu C, Roughley M. 2018. Facial depiction of an Iron Age male in his 60's featured on Digging for Britain, Season 7 Episode 4 'Iron Age Revealed' >Link

Liu C, Burton I, Shrimpton S, Wilkinson C. 2018. Facial depictions of WW1 German soldier excavated from a battlefield near the French Village of Bullecourt. Featured on Digging for Britain: 'East', Series 7 Episode 3

Wilkinson C, Shrimpton S, Smith K, Roughley M. 2018. Facial Depiction of "The Rider of Hemmaberg" - a 5/6th century man with a wooden leg prosthesis from the Migration Period in Carinthia, on display at the Archaeological Pilgrim Museum in Globasnitz >Link

Wilkinson C, Liu C, Roughley M. 2018. Facial depiction of a Neolithic individual excavated from a site in Switzerland on display at Museum Burghalde in Lenzburg >Link

Wilkinson CM, Liu CYJ, Roughley MA. 2017. Facial depiction of a 2nd Century older Roman female found as an isolated burial in Dunstable >Link

Wilkinson CM, Liu CYJ, Roughley MA. 2017. Facial depiction of a 19th century individual (POW) with a craniotomy >Link

Wilkinson CM, Liu CYJ, Hengelhaupt ID, Roughley MA. 2017. Facial depiction of Skeleton 22 - 17th Century Scottish soldier found buried at Durham Cathedral, for the exhibition 'Bodies of Evidence' at Palace Green Library, Durham Cathedral. >Link

Wilkinson CM, Liu, C , Roughley MA. 2017. Facial Depiction of a Tudor Dubliner >Link

wilkinson CM, Roughley MA, liu C. 2017. Facial Depictions of Liffs Low man and Fin Cop 8 on display as part of the 'Wonders of the Peak' exhibition at Buxton Museum >Link

Roughley MA, Shrimpton S, Wilkinson CM. 2016. Facial depiction of Kukruse lady - a 13th century AD lady from Estonia

wilkinson CM, Roughley MA, liu C. 2016. Facial depiction of Leasowe man on display at Liverpool Museum

Wilkinson C, MacGregor M, Roughley MA, Shrimpton S. 2016. Facial Depiction of Robert the Bruce >Link

wilkinson CM, smith K, liu C, Roughley MA. 2016. Facial depictions of 3 medieval Norwegians for the exhibition "Hvor kommer du fra?/From where do you hail?" at Bryggens Museum, Bergen, Norway 01 Oct 2016 - 13 Aug 2017 >Link

Wilkinson CM, Shrimpton SL, Roughley MA. 2015. Facial Depiction of a 1200 year old bog body known as "Bernie", on display at Ostfriesisches Landesmuseum, Emden

Wilkinson CM, Roughley MA. 2014. Facial Depiction of Saint Nicholas >Link

Liu C, Roughley M, Shrimpton S, Wilkinson C. Facial depiction of two Mesolithic individuals from Norway on display at Bergen City Museum


Roughley MA, Smith KA, Liu CYJ, Hengelhaupt ID, Wilkinson CM. 2018. Facial depiction (3D printed replica) of a 17th Century Scottish Soldier known as SK22 for the exhibition 'Bodies of Evidence' at Palace Green Library, Durham Cathedral 09 Jun 2018 - 07 Oct 2018 >Link

Wilkinson CM, smith K, Roughley MA, baker C. 2017. Facial Depiction of Ta Kush (3D printed replica and animation) on display as part of the 'Ancient Lives' exhibition at Maidstone Museum

Wilkinson CM, Shrimpton SL, SMITH K, LIU C, Roughley MA. 2017. Facial depiction of George Lister and Elizabeth Dibb (3D printed replicas) on display at Washburn Heritage Centre

Wilkinson C, Shrimpton S, Roughley M, Smith K, Liu CY. Facial depiction of two Mesolithic individuals from Norway (3D printed replicas) on display at Bergen City Museum

Internet publication

Roughley MA, Hengelhaupt ID, Wilkinson CM. 2017. Face Lab – Facial depiction of one of the Scottish Soldiers >Link

Book review

Wilkinson CM. 2015. ‘Severed: A History of Heads Lost and Heads Found’ reviewed by Professor Caroline Wilkinson Centre for Medical Humanities Durham University,


Wilkinson C, Rynn C. 2012. Craniofacial identification :1-263 9780521768627 >DOI

Caldwell D, Hall MA, Wilkinson CM. 2010. The Lewis Chessmen Unmasked National Museums of Scotland 9781905267460

Wilkinson C. 2004. Forensic Facial Reconstruction Cambridge University Press 9780521820035


Wilkinson CM, Needham C, Mackenzie S. 2010. Facial Comparison Report Facial Comparison Report

Editorial/letter to the editor

Wilkinson C. 2009. 13th Meeting of International Association of Craniofacial Identification (IACI) FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 5 :1-1 >DOI >Link


Wilkinson C. 2004. Facial approximation: Comments on Stephan (2003) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 125 :329-330 >DOI >Link


Liu C, Wilkinson C, Godfrey B, Maxwell-Stewart H. Convicts: Photographs of Australian and British Convicts

Wilkinson C, Smith K, Roughley M, Balachandran S. Facial depictions of two ancient Egyptian Mummies - the 'Cohen' mummy and the 'Goucher' mummy - stewarded by Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, on display at Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, USA >Link

Wilkinson CM, Godfrey B, Roughley MA, Williams L, Hengelhaupt ID, Price K. Convicts - An exhibition of photographs and average faces of 19th and 21st Century criminals at the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral 05 Mar 2018 - 12 Mar 2018 >Link

Wilkinson C, Pantsios L, Roughley MA, Wilson R. Animating Robert Burns - exhibition at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, 25 Jan 2018 >Link

Wilson J, Wilson L, Wilkinson CM, Roughley MA. Undead Sun:We Put the World Before You exhibition - Face Lab Collaboration with Turner Prize nominees, Jane and Louise Wilson, Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art, 01 Oct 2016 - 15 Jan 2017 >Link

Wilkinson C, Mackenzie S, Smith KA, Roughley MA. Faces of Merseyside - exhibition at the 7th International Conference on the Image: Face Value – Personification and Identity in a Post-Digital Age at Liverpool School of Art and Design 01 Sep 2016 - 02 Sep 2016 >Link

Wilkinson CM, Roughley MA. The Evolution of Facial Depiction from Human Remains, Online 04 Jul 2016 - present >Link

Wilkinson CM, Aitken J. Facial depiction of Richard III

Aitken J, Wilkinson CM. Mary Queen of Scots >Link

Wilkinson C. Amazing Graces Projection #3Queens Event 23-25May 2015 >Public Url

Engagement & Impact

Conference presentation:

Smith, K. A., Wilkinson, C. W., Roughley, M. A. (2018), Death Futures?, Encountering Corpses IV - ‘Post-Human Corpse, Death and Digital Technology’, No 70 Oxford Street, Manchester, Oral presentation 10/11/2018

Roughley, M. A., Wilkinson, C. M., Shrimpton, S. L., MacGregor, M., Mockton, D. G., Moffat, R., (2018), Exploring cognitive bias when texturing a facial depiction of King Robert the Bruce, Art, Materiality and Represenation - Royal Anthropological Institute Conference 2018, British Museum, SOAS, Oral presentation 01/06/2018

Smith, K. A., Balachandran, S., Wilkinson, C. M., Swaney, M., Garcia, J. R., Roughley, M. A., (2018), One of Us? Navigating ‘rehumanisation’ questions in the depiction and display of ancient Egyptians from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, Art, Materiality and Representation - Royal Anthropological Institute Conference 2018, British Museum, SOAS, Oral presentation 01/06/2018

Smith, K. A., Roughley, M. A., Harris, S., Wilkinson, C. M., Parlmer, E., (2018), From Ta-Kesh to Ta-Kush: the affordances of digital, haptic visualisation for heritage accessibility, Extraordinary World Congress on Mummy Studies, Santa Cruz, Tenerife, Oral presentation 21/05/2018


Research Team of the Year (awarded to Face Lab, LJMU) - Educate North Awards 2019, Educate North,

‘Heritage Project Award’ for Exercise MAGWICH, Ministry of Defence Sanctuary Awards (2018), presented to Operation Nightingale (DIO) and Face Lab (LJMU), Ministry of Defence,

‘Silver Otter Award’ for Exercise MAGWICH, Ministry of Defence Sanctuary Awards (2018), presented to Operation Nightingale (DIO) and Face Lab (LJMU), Ministry of Defence,

Liverpool John Moores University's Vice-Chancellor's Excellence Award for Excellence in Social and Economic Engagement (2016) - Presented to Professor Caroline Wilkinson and the Face Lab team, Liverpool John Moores University

Combined Royal Colleges Medal is awarded for an outstanding contribution to the advancement and/or application of medical photography or the wider field of medical imaging, Royal Photographic Society

Senior Award for Public Engagement, Royal Society of Edinburgh,

External collaboration:

University of Dundee, Prof Chris Rowland

External PGR examinations performed:

University of Edinburgh, PhD, Facing the past: in vivo facial soft tissue depths of a modern adult population from Germany

Media Coverage:,,, Local media coverage relating to the Face Lab 'Faces of Merseyside' exhibition that was displayed as part of the 7th International Conference on the Image: Face Value – Personification and Identity in a Post-Digital Age,,, Worldwide news coverage of the reveal of a facial depiction of Robert the Bruce - Collaboration with Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Dr Martin MacGregor, Mark Roughley and Sarah Shrimpton, BBC coverage of the release of the updated facial depiction of Merseyside's oldest skeleton know as 'Leasowe Man' - Collaborative work with Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Jessica Liu, Mark Roughley, Royal Photographic Society Journal 2016 RPS Awards Oct 2016 Volume 156, number 10,, TV appearance 8pm C4 26 March 2016 Secret Histories: Shakespeare's Tomb Craniofacial and forensic art expertise 1.47 million viewers over 7 days,,, Face Lab. Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool School of Art and Design research group launch event,,, Professor Caroline Wilkinson and Mark Roughley of the new Face Lab at Liverpool John Moores University’s School of Art and Design have created a new facial depiction of St Nicholas – the man who became known as Santa – using the latest 3D interactive technology.

Membership of professional bodies:

Fellow, Anatomical Society

Member, British Association of Forensic Anthropology

Other invited event:

Ada Lovelace Lecture, Edinburgh Napier University, This event was part of Ada Lovelace Day, a worldwide celebration of women in science, technology, engineering and maths.

History of Medicine invited speaker, Royal College of Medicine, London, Depicting the Dead

Rediscovering Richard III public symposium - Yornight 2015, York Museum,

Other Professional Activity:

Public Engagement Series - Liverpool LASER. Part of the worldwide series of Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous (LASER) Talks sponsored by Leonardo, the International Society for Art, Sciences and Technology (Leonardo/ISAST). LASER talks are an international programme of free evening gatherings that bring artists and scientists together for informal presentations and conversations on art, science and technology. Liverpool LASER is one of only 36 LASER hosts operating worldwide and with every LASER being unique to its own community, Liverpool LASER hopes to bring together interested individuals to explore and cultivate the growing art/science/technology community in the North West. Liverpool LASER hosted by Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Director Liverpool School of Art and Design, and Mark Roughley, MA Art in Science programme tutor, is supported by the MA Art in Science programme. More information on the Liverpool LASER series here:

Research Grants Awarded:

British Academy Knowledge Frontiers, Migrant Disaster Victim Identification, Grant value (£): £49,994, Duration of research project: 12 months

QR APSS, Faces of Merseyside, Grant value (£): 22,000, Duration of research project: 6 months

DSTL PhD scholarship, Facial avatars and familar face recognition, Prof Chris Rowland, University of Dundee; Dr Charlie Frowd, University of Winchester, Grant value (£): 125000, Duration of research project: 4 years

AHRC, Image Gallery: The Evolution of Facial Reconstruction, Mark Roughley, Grant value (£): 4000, Duration of research project: 8 months