Liverpool Skyline

Liverpool School of Art and Design

Prof Caroline Wilkinson

Prof Caroline Wilkinson

Telephone: 0151 904 1188


Caroline took up the post of Director of the School of Art & Design in October 2014. She has a background in art and science and her research and creative work sits at the forefront of art-science fusion and includes subjects as diverse as forensic art, human anatomy, medical art, face recognition, forensic science, anthropology, 3D visualisation, digital art and craniofacial identification.

Caroline is a graduate of the University of Manchester, where she also led the Unit of Art in Medicine 2000-2005 and received a NESTA fellowship to develop a 3D computerised facial reconstruction system for use in forensic and archaeological depiction. She moved to LJMU from the University of Dundee, where she was Head of Human Identification in the award-winning Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification. Her high profile facial depiction work includes facial depictions of Richard III, St Nicolas, J.S. Bach, Rameses II and Mary, Queen of Scots.
Caroline Wilkinson is Director of the Face Lab, a LJMU research group based in Liverpool Science Park. The Face Lab carries out forensic/archaeological research and consultancy work and this includes craniofacial analysis, facial depiction and forensic art. Craniofacial analysis involves the depiction and identification of unknown bodies for forensic investigation or historical figures for archaeological interpretation. This may involve post-mortem depiction, facial reconstruction, craniofacial superimposition and skull reassembly. Forensic art also involves witness interviews to produce facial sketches/composites, age progression images and facial image comparison.

The Face Lab research relates to facial identification, post-mortem decomposition, ancestry determination, craniofacial reconstruction, preserved bodies and facial animation. Caroline is accredited as a forensic anthropologist Level I (craniofacial specialism) by the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI) and is an experienced forensic practitioner.

Caroline Wilkinson has collaborated frequently with museums and the media, especially relating to craniofacial depiction of people from the past. She has worked with the National Museum of Scotland, National Museum of Ireland, Museum of London, Egyptian Museum of Cairo, Theban Mapping Project, FBI Academy, Interpol, Moesgaard Museum, Manchester Museum and the Fraunhofer Institute. She has current research collaborations with Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art & Design, DSTL, Chonnam National University and the Richard III Society.


2001, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, PhD
1998, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, MPhil


Designs (including illustrations)

Roughley MA, wilkinson C, shrimpton S. 2016. Facial Depiction of Robert the Bruce

Journal Articles

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM. 2016. The unfamiliar face effect on forensic craniofacial reconstruction and recognition FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 269 :21-30 >DOI >Link

Ibáñez O, Valsecchi A, Cavalli F, Huete MI, Campomanes-Alvarez BR, Campomanes-Alvarez C, Vicente R, Navega D, Ross A, Wilkinson C, Jankauskas R, Imaizumi K, Hardiman R, Jayaprakash PT, Ruiz E, Molinero F, Lestón P, Veselovskaya E, Abramov A, Steyn M, Cardoso J, Humpire D, Lusnig L, Gibelli D, Mazzarelli D, Gaudio D, Collini F, Damas S. 2016. Study on the criteria for assessing skull-face correspondence in craniofacial superimposition Legal Medicine, 23 :59-70 >DOI

Ferguson E, Wilkinson C. 2016. Juvenile age estimation from facial images Science and Justice, >DOI

Hadi H, Wilkinson C. 2016. Estimation and reconstruction of facial creases based on skull crease morphology Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, :1-15 >DOI

Lee W-J, Woo EJ, Oh CS, Yoo JA, Kim Y-S, Hong JH, Yoon AY, Wilkinson CM, Ju JO, Choi SJ, Lee SD, Shin DH. 2016. Bio-Anthropological Studies on Human Skeletons from the 6th Century Tomb of Ancient Silla Kingdom in South Korea PLOS ONE, 11 >DOI >Link

Erolin C, Lamb C, Soames R, Wilkinson C. 2016. Does virtual haptic dissection improve student learning? A multi-year comparative study Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 220 :110-117 >DOI

Houlton TMR, Wilkinson CM. 2016. Recently identified features that help to distinguish ceremonial tsantsa from commercial shrunken heads JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE, 20 :660-670 >DOI >Link

Damas S, Wilkinson C, Kahana T, Veselovskaya E, Abramov A, Jankauskas R, Jayaprakash PT, Ruiz E, Navarro F, Huete MI, Cunha E, Cavalli F, Clement J, Leston P, Molinero F, Briers T, Viegas F, Imaizumi K, Humpire D, Ibanez O. 2015. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (II): Best practices proposal FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 257 :504-508 >DOI >Link

Strauss A, Oliveira RE, Bernardo DV, Salazar-Garcia DC, Talamo S, Jaouen K, Hubbe M, Black S, Wilkinson C, Richards MP, Araujo AGM, Kipnis R, Neves WA. 2015. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil) PLOS ONE, 10 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C, Lofthouse A. 2015. The use of craniofacial superimposition for disaster victim identification FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 252 >DOI >Link

Huete MI, Ibáñez O, Wilkinson C, Kahana T. 2015. Past, present, and future of craniofacial superimposition: Literature and international surveys Legal Medicine, 17 :267-278 >DOI

Hwang H-S, Choe S-Y, Hwang J-S, Moon D-N, Hou Y, Lee W-J, Wilkinson C. 2015. Reproducibility of Facial Soft Tissue Thickness Measurements Using Cone-Beam CT Images According to the Measurement Methods JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 60 :957-965 >DOI >Link

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM, Hwang H-S, Lee S-M. 2015. Correlation Between Average Tissue Depth Data and Quantitative Accuracy of Forensic Craniofacial Reconstructions Measured by Geometric Surface Comparison Method JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 60 :572-580 >DOI >Link

Briggs M, Wilkinson C, Golash A. 2014. Digital multimedia books produced using iBooks Author for pre-operative surgical patient information Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 37 :59-64 >DOI

Short LJ, Khambay B, Ayoub A, Erolin C, Rynn C, Wilkinson C. 2014. Validation of a computer modelled forensic facial reconstruction technique using CT data from live subjects: A pilot study FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 237 >DOI >Link

Hadi H, Wilkinson CM. 2014. The post-mortem resilience of facial creases and the possibility for use in identification of the dead FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 237 >DOI >Link

Lee WJ, Yoon AY, Song MK, Wilkinson CM, Shin DH. 2014. The archaeological contribution of forensic craniofacial reconstruction to a portrait drawing of a Korean historical figure JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 49 :228-236 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C. 2014. A review of the changing culture and social context relating to forensic facial depiction of the dead FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 245 :95-100 >DOI >Link

Lee W-J, Wilkinson CM, Hwang H-S. 2012. An Accuracy Assessment of Forensic Computerized Facial Reconstruction Employing Cone-Beam Computed Tomography from Live Subjects JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 57 :318-327 >DOI >Link

Hwang H-S, Park M-K, Lee W-J, Cho J-H, Kim B-K, Wilkinson CM. 2012. Facial Soft Tissue Thickness Database for Craniofacial Reconstruction in Korean Adults JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 57 :1442-1447 >DOI >Link

Needham C, Wilkinson C, Soames R. 2011. Virtual reality haptic human dissection Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163 :397-399 >DOI

Pueschel K, Saering D, Kaesemann P, Scheuermann S, Kreutz K, Ohlrogge S, Wittwer-Backofen U, Burrath S, Wilkinson C, Bauerochse A, Schultz M, Jopp E. 2011. Facial reconstruction of a severely fragmented bog body RECHTSMEDIZIN, 21 :221-224 >DOI >Link

Erolin C, Wilkinson C, Soames R. 2011. Virtual reality haptic dissection Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 34 :193-199 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Evans R. 2011. Are facial image analysis experts any better than the general public at identifying individuals from CCTV images? (vol 49, pg 191, 2009) SCIENCE & JUSTICE, 51 :218-221 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C. 2010. Facial reconstruction - anatomical art or artistic anatomy? JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, 216 :235-250 >DOI >Link

Rynn C, Wilkinson CM, Peters HL. 2010. Prediction of nasal morphology from the skull FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 6 :20-34 >DOI >Link

McKenna D, Wilkinson C, Ker J. 2010. Diagnostic recognition of facial changes associated with chronic conditions: use of an e-learning tool to enhance medical student education. Journal of visual communication in medicine, 33 :55-62

Gibson SJ, Scandrett CM, Solomon CJ, Maylin MIS, Wilkinson CM. 2009. Computer assisted age progression FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 5 :174-181 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C, Evans R. 2009. Are facial image analysis experts any better than the general public at identifying individuals from CCTV images? SCIENCE & JUSTICE, 49 :191-196 >DOI >Link

Caldwell DH, Hall MA, Wilkinson CM. 2009. The Lewis Hoard of gaming pieces: A re-examination of their context, meanings, discovery and manufacture Medieval Archaeology, 53 :155-203 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Rynn C, Peters H, Taister M, Kau CH, Richmond S. 2006. A blind accuracy assessment of computer-modeled forensic facial reconstruction using computed tomography data from live subjects. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 2 :179-187

Rynn C, Wilkinson CM. 2006. Appraisal of traditional and recently proposed relationships between the hard and soft dimensions of the nose in profile AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 130 :364-373 >DOI >Link

Wilkinson C. 2005. Computerized forensic facial reconstruction: A review of current systems Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 1 :173-177 >DOI

Brier B, Wilkinson C. 2004. A preliminary study on the accuracy of mummy portraits: Hierzu Tafel XXIII-XXIX Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 132 :107-111

Wilkinson CM, Mautner SA. 2003. Measurement of eyeball protrusion and its application in facial reconstruction JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 48 :12-16 >Link

Wilkinson CM, Motwani M, Chiang E. 2003. The relationship between the soft tissues and the skeletal detail of the mouth JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 48 :728-732 >Link

Needham C, Wilkinson C, Knüsel CJ. 2003. Reconstructing visual manifestations of disease from archaeological human remains Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 26 :103-107 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Neave R. 2003. The reconstruction of a face showing a healed wound JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 30 :1343-1348 >DOI >Link

Manley B, Eremin K, Shortland A, Wilkinson C. 2002. The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 25 :155-159 >DOI

Wilkinson CM. 2002. In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for white British children JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, 47 :459-465 >Link

Wilkinson C, Neave R. 2001. Skull re-assembly and the implications for forensic facial reconstruction Science and Justice - Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 41 :233-234

mackenzie S, Wilkinson CM. Morphological and morphometric changes in the faces of female-to-male transsexual (FTM) people International Journal of Transgenderism, >DOI

Wilkinson C. A review of forensic art Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science, :17-17 >DOI


Wilkinson CM. 2015. Craniofacial Analysis and Identification Valentine T, Davies JP. Forensic Facial Identification: Theory and Practice of Identification from Eyewitnesses, Composites and CCTV :93-126 John Wiley & Sons 978-1118469583

Wilkinson CM. 2014. The facial analysis of the Lewis Chess pieces Caldwell DH, Hall MA. The Lewis Chessmen: new perspectives :1-10 National Museums of Scotland. Edinburgh 978 1 905267 85 9

Richmond S, Beldie L, Lu Y, Middleton J, Walker B, Cronin A, Drage N, Zhurov A, Wilkinson C. 2013. Predicting and Managing Surgical Intervention in Craniofacial Disharmony-A Biomechanical Perspective Three-Dimensional Imaging for Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery :180-197 9781118786642 >DOI

Wilkinson C, Tillotson A. 2012. Post-mortem prediction of facial appearance Craniofacial Identification :166-183 9781139049566 >DOI

Wilkinson C. 2012. Juvenile facial reconstruction Craniofacial Identification :254-260 9781139049566 >DOI

Davis JP, Valentine T, Wilkinson C. 2012. Facial image comparison Craniofacial Identification :136-156 9781139049566 >DOI

Mahoney G, Wilkinson C. 2012. Computer-generated facial depiction Craniofacial Identification :222-237 9781139049566 >DOI

Wilkinson CM. 2008. The facial reconstruction of ancient Egyptians Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science :162-178 9780511499654 >DOI

Book Reviews

Wilkinson CM. 2015. ‘Severed: A History of Heads Lost and Heads Found’ reviewed by Professor Caroline Wilkinson Centre for Medical Humanities Durham University,


Wilkinson C, Rynn C. 2012. Craniofacial identification :1-263 9781139049566 >DOI

Caldwell D, Hall MA, Wilkinson CM. 2010. The Lewis Chessmen Unmasked National Museums of Scotland 9781905267460

Wilkinson C. 2004. Forensic Facial Reconstruction Cambridge University Press 9780521820035

Editorials and letter to the editor

Wilkinson C. 2009. 13th Meeting of International Association of Craniofacial Identification (IACI) FORENSIC SCIENCE MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY, 5 :1-1 >DOI >Link


Wilkinson C. 2004. Facial approximation: Comments on Stephan (2003) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 125 :329-330 >DOI >Link


Roughley MA, wilkinson CM, liu C. Facial depiction of Leasowe man

Roughley MA, wilkinson C, shrimpton S, SMITH K, LIU C. Facial depiction of George Lister and Elizabeth Dibb

Roughley MA, liu C, wilkinson CM. Facial Depictions of Liffs Low man and Fin Cop 8

wilkinson C, mackenzie S. Faces of Merseyside

wilkinson CM, smith K, liu C, Roughley MA. Facial depictions of 3 medieval Norwegians for the exhibition "Hvor kommer du fra?/From where do you hail?"

Wilkinson CM, Roughley M. The Evolution of Facial Depiction from Human Remains >Link

Wilkinson CM, Aitken J. Facial depiction of Richard III

Aitken J, Wilkinson CM. Mary Queen of Scots >Link

Wilkinson C. Amazing Graces Projection #3Queens Event 23-25May 2015

Engagement & Impact


Award title: Combined Royal Colleges Medal is awarded for an outstanding contribution to the advancement and/or application of medical photography or the wider field of medical imaging, Awarding body: Royal Photographic Society

Award title: Senior Award for Public Engagement, Awarding body: Royal Society of Edinburgh, URL:

External collaboration:

Institution: University of Dundee, Collaborator: Prof Chris Rowland

External PGR examinations performed:

Name of University: University of Edinburgh, Award student examined for: PhD, Thesis title: Facing the past: in vivo facial soft tissue depths of a modern adult population from Germany

Media Coverage:

Links #2:, Links #1:, Links #3:, Media coverage: Local media coverage relating to the Face Lab 'Faces of Merseyside' exhibition that was displayed as part of the 7th International Conference on the Image: Face Value – Personification and Identity in a Post-Digital Age

Links #2:, Links #1:, Links #3:, Media coverage: Worldwide news coverage of the reveal of a facial depiction of Robert the Bruce - Collaboration with Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Dr Martin MacGregor and Sarah Shrimpton

Links #1:, Media coverage: BBC coverage of the release of the updated facial depiction of Merseyside's oldest skeleton know as 'Leasowe Man' - Collaborative work with Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Jessica Liu, Mark Roughley

Links #1:, Media coverage: Royal Photographic Society Journal 2016 RPS Awards Oct 2016 Volume 156, number 10

Links #2:, Links #1:, Media coverage: TV appearance 8pm C4 26 March 2016 Secret Histories: Shakespeare's Tomb Craniofacial and forensic art expertise 1.47 million viewers over 7 days

Links #2:, Links #1:, Links #3:, Media coverage: Face Lab. Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool School of Art and Design research group launch event

Links #2:, Links #1:, Links #3:, Media coverage: Professor Caroline Wilkinson and Mark Roughley of the new Face Lab at Liverpool John Moores University’s School of Art and Design have created a new facial depiction of St Nicholas – the man who became known as Santa – using the latest 3D interactive technology.

Membership of professional bodies:

Fellow, Anatomical Society

Member, British Association of Forensic Anthropology

Other invited event:

Title of event: Ada Lovelace Lecture, Location: Edinburgh Napier University, Description: This event was part of Ada Lovelace Day, a worldwide celebration of women in science, technology, engineering and maths.

Title of event: History of Medicine invited speaker, Location: Royal College of Medicine, London, Description: Depicting the Dead

Title of event: Rediscovering Richard III public symposium - Yornight 2015, Location: York Museum, Description:

Research Grants Awarded:

QR APSS, Faces of Merseyside, Grant value (£): 22,000, Duration of research project: 6 months

DSTL, Facial avatars and familar face recognition, Prof Chris Rowland, University of Dundee; Dr Charlie Frowd, University of Winchester, Grant value (£): 125000, Duration of research project: 4 years

AHRC, Image Gallery: The Evolution of Facial Reconstruction, Mark Roughley, Grant value (£): 4000, Duration of research project: 8 months