Dr Gareth Weedall

School of Biological and Environmental Sciences

I am a geneticist with a primary interest in pathogens and their vectors. My research applies bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to study evolutionary genomics and gene expression in these organisms.

I obtained a degree in genetics from the University of Nottingham (2002), where I became fascinated by parasitology and by population genetics. I combined these themes in my PhD research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2007) on the population and evolutionary genetics of malaria parasites in response to host immunity. I moved to the University of Liverpool in 2008, where I learned the fundamentals of bioinformatics to analyse NGS data. This I applied in a number of projects including one of the first evolutionary genomic studies of the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and a transcriptomic analysis of the gene expression landscape of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which sparked an interest in gene expression and its regulation. During this time I worked closely with Liverpool’s Centre for Genomic Research (CGR) and was head of the CGR bioinformatics group before moving to the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in 2014 to apply NGS analysis to understand the population genomics and genetic mechanisms of insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors of human disease. I joined Liverpool John Moores University in 2018 as a lecturer in Genetics.


2007, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom, PhD
2002, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, BSc

Academic appointments

Lecturer in Genetics, Liverpool John Moores University, 2018 - present

Journal article

Hearn J, Djoko Tagne CS, Ibrahim SS, Tene-Fossog B, Mugenzi LMJ, Irving H, Riveron JM, Weedall GD, Wondji CS. 2022. Multi-omics analysis identifies a CYP9K1 haplotype conferring pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa. Molecular ecology, DOI Author Url

Sheehy L, Cutler J, Weedall GD, Rae R. 2022. Microbiome analysis of malacopathogenic nematodes suggests no evidence of a single bacterial symbiont responsible for gastropod mortality Frontiers in Immunology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Ashraf F, Weedall GD. 2022. Characterization of the glutathione S-transferase genes in the sand flies Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis shows expansion of the novel glutathione S-transferase xi (X) class Insect Molecular Biology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wondji CS, Hearn J, Irving H, Wondji MJ, Weedall GD. 2021. RNAseq-based gene expression profiling of the Anopheles funestus pyrethroid-resistant strain FUMOZ highlights the predominant role of the duplicated CYP6P9a/b cytochrome P450s G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics, 12 DOI Publisher Url Public Url

Pegoraro M, Weedall GD. 2021. Malaria in the 'Omics Era'. Genes, 12 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

König C, Honecker B, Wilson IW, Weedall GD, Hall N, Roeder T, Metwally NG, Bruchhaus I. 2021. Taxon-Specific Proteins of the Pathogenic Entamoeba Species E. histolytica and E. nuttalli Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Sandeu MM, Mulamba C, Weedall GD, Wondji CS. 2020. A differential expression of pyrethroid resistance genes in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Uganda is associated with patterns of gene flow. PLoS One, 15 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Tchouakui M, Wondji MJ, Irving H, Tchoupo M, Hearn J, Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Cho-Ngwa F, Wondji CS. 2020. A 6.5-kb intergenic structural variation enhances P450-mediated resistance to pyrethroids in malaria vectors lowering bed net efficacy Molecular Ecology, 29 :4395-4411 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Weedall GD. 2020. The Entamoeba lysine and glutamic acid rich protein (KERP1) virulence factor gene is present in the genomes of Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 238 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Hearn J, Irving H, Kamdem C, Fouet C, White BJ, Wondji CS. 2020. An Africa-wide genomic evolution of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus involves selective sweeps, copy number variations, gene conversion and transposons PLOS GENETICS, 16 DOI Author Url

Knot I, Zouganelis GD, Weedall GD, Wich SA, Rae R. 2020. DNA barcoding of nematodes using the MinION Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wilding CS, Fletcher N, Smith EK, Prentis P, Weedall GD, Stewart Z. 2020. The genome of the sea anemone Actinia equina (L.): Meiotic toolkit genes and the question of sexual reproduction. Marine Genomics, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Dobrzanska DA, Lamaudiere MTF, Rollason J, Acton L, Duncan M, Compton S, Simms J, Weedall GD, Morozov IY. 2019. Preventive antibiotic treatment of calves: emergence of dysbiosis causing propagation of obese state-associated and mobile multidrug resistance-carrying bacteria Microbial Biotechnology, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Tchouakui M, Wondji MJ, Irving H, Tchoupo M, Hearn J, Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Wondji CS. 2019. Cis-regulatory CYP6P9b P450 variants associated with loss of insecticide-treated bed net efficacy against Anopheles funestus Nature Communications, 10 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Al-Salem WS, Solórzano C, Weedall GD, Dyer NA, Kelly-Hope L, Casas-Sánchez A, Alraey Y, Alyamani EJ, Halliday A, Balghonaim SM, Alsohibany KS, Alzeyadi Z, Alzahrani MH, Al-Shahrani AM, Assiri AM, Memish Z, Acosta-Serrano Á. 2019. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment response varies depending on parasite species, geographical location and development of secondary infection Parasites & Vectors, 12 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Chudzicka-Ormaniec P, Macios M, Koper M, Weedall GD, Caddick MX, Weglenski P, Dzikowska A. 2019. The role of the GATA transcription factor AreB in regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 366 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Weedall GD, Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Tchouakui M, Ibrahim SS, Amvongo-Adjia N, Irving H, Wondji MJ, Tchoupo M, Djouaka R, Riveron JM, Wondji CS. 2019. A cytochrome P450 allele confers pyrethroid resistance on a major African malaria vector, reducing insecticide-treated bednet efficacy Science Translational Medicine, 11 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wilson IW, Weedall GD, Lorenzi H, Howcroft T, Hon C-C, Deloger M, Guillen N, Paterson S, Clark CG, Hall N. 2019. Genetic Diversity and Gene Family Expansions in Members of the Genus Entamoeba Genome Biology and Evolution, 11 :688-705 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Mackenzie-Impoinvil L, Weedall GD, Lol JC, Pinto J, Vizcaino L, Dzuris N, Riveron J, Padilla N, Wondji C, Lenhart A. 2019. Contrasting patterns of gene expression indicate differing pyrethroid resistance mechanisms across the range of the New World malaria vector Anopheles albimanus PLoS One, 14 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Matthews BJ, Dudchenko O, Kingan SB, Koren S, Antoshechkin I, Crawford JE, Glassford WJ, Herre M, Redmond SN, Rose NH, Weedall GD, Wu Y, Batra SS, Brito-Sierra CA, Buckingham SD, Campbell CL, Chan S, Cox E, Evans BR, Fansiri T, Filipovic I, Fontaine A, Gloria-Soria A, Hall R, Joardar VS, Jones AK, Kay RGG, Kodali VK, Lee J, Lycett GJ, Mitchell SN, Muehling J, Murphy MR, Omer AD, Partridge FA, Peluso P, Aiden AP, Ramasamy V, Rasic G, Roy S, Saavedra-Rodriguez K, Sharan S, Sharma A, Smith ML, Turner J, Weakley AM, Zhao Z, Akbari OS, Black WC, Cao H, Darby AC, Hill CA, Johnston JS, Murphy TD, Raikhel AS, Sattelle DB, Sharakhov IV, White BJ, Zhao L, Aiden EL, Mann RS, Lambrechts L, Powell JR, Sharakhova MV, Tu Z, Robertson HM, McBride CS, Hastic AR, Korlach J, Neafsey DE, Phillippy AM, Vosshall LB. 2018. Improved reference genome of Aedes aegypti informs arbovirus vector control Nature, 563 :501-507 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wilding CS, Weedall GD. 2018. Morphotypes of the common beadlet anemone Actinia equina (L.) are genetically distinct Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 510 :81-85 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Barnes KG, Weedall GD, Ndula M, Irving H, Mzihalowa T, Hemingway J, Wondji CS. 2017. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control PLoS Genetics, 13 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Wielgoss S, Didelot X, Chaudhuri RR, Liu X, Weedall GD, Velicer GJ, Vos M. 2016. A barrier to homologous recombination between sympatric strains of the cooperative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus ISME JOURNAL, 10 :2468-2477 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Irving H, Hughes MA, Wondji CS. 2015. Molecular tools for studying the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus: improving the utility of the genome using a comparative poly(A) and Ribo-Zero RNAseq analysis BMC GENOMICS, 16 DOI Author Url

Riveron JM, Chiumia M, Menze BD, Barnes KG, Irving H, Ibrahim SS, Weedall GD, Mzilahowa T, Wondji CS. 2015. Rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi: a major concern for malaria vector control MALARIA JOURNAL, 14 DOI Author Url

Aboagye-Antwi F, Alhafez N, Weedall GD, Brothwood J, Kandola S, Paton D, Fofana A, Olohan L, Betancourth MP, Ekechukwu NE, Baeshen R, Traore SF, Diabate A, Tripet F. 2015. Experimental Swap of Anopheles gambiae's Assortative Mating Preferences Demonstrates Key Role of X-Chromosome Divergence Island in Incipient Sympatric Speciation PLOS GENETICS, 11 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Hall N. 2015. Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange in parasitic protists PARASITOLOGY, 142 :S120-S127 DOI Author Url

Sibthorp C, Wu H, Cowley G, Wong PWH, Palaima P, Morozov IY, Weedall GD, Caddick MX. 2013. Transcriptome analysis of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans directed to the global identification of promoters BMC GENOMICS, 14 DOI Author Url

Ehrenkaufer GM, Weedall GD, Williams D, Lorenzi HA, Caler E, Hall N, Singh U. 2013. The genome and transcriptome of the enteric parasite Entamoeba invadens, a model for encystation GENOME BIOLOGY, 14 DOI Author Url

Gilchrist CA, Ali IKM, Kabir M, Alam F, Scherbakova S, Ferlanti E, Weedall GD, Hall N, Haque R, Petri WA, Caler E. 2012. A Multilocus Sequence Typing System (MLST) reveals a high level of diversity and a genetic component to Entamoeba histolytica virulence BMC MICROBIOLOGY, 12 DOI Author Url

Wilson IW, Weedall GD, Hall N. 2012. Host-Parasite interactions in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar: what have we learned from their genomes? PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, 34 :90-99 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Clark CG, Koldkjaer P, Kay S, Bruchhaus I, Tannich E, Paterson S, Hall N. 2012. Genomic diversity of the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica GENOME BIOLOGY, 13 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Hall N. 2011. Evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba RESEARCH IN MICROBIOLOGY, 162 :637-645 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Sherrington J, Paterson S, Hall N. 2011. Evidence of Gene Conversion in Genes Encoding the Gal/GalNac Lectin Complex of Entamoeba PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, 5 DOI Author Url

Osier FHA, Weedall GD, Verra F, Murungi L, Tetteh KKA, Bull P, Faber BW, Remarque E, Thomas A, Marsh K, Conway DJ. 2010. Allelic Diversity and Naturally Acquired Allele-Specific Antibody Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Kenya INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 78 :4625-4633 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Conway DJ. 2010. Detecting signatures of balancing selection to identify targets of anti-parasite immunity TRENDS IN PARASITOLOGY, 26 :363-369 DOI Author Url

van Noort SP, Nunes MC, Weedall GD, Hviid L, Gomes MGM. 2010. Immune Selection and Within-Host Competition Can Structure the Repertoire of Variant Surface Antigens in Plasmodium falciparum - A Mathematical Model PLOS ONE, 5 DOI Author Url

Bray RA, Waeschenbach A, Cribb TH, Weedall GD, Dyal P, Littlewood DTJ. 2009. The phylogeny of the Lepocreadioidea (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes: Implications for their systematics and evolution ACTA PARASITOLOGICA, 54 :310-329 DOI Author Url

Roy SW, Weedall GD, da Silva RL, Polley SD, Ferreira MU. 2009. Sequence diversity and evolutionary dynamics of the dimorphic antigen merozoite surface protein-6 and other Msp genes of Plasmodium falciparum GENE, 443 :12-21 DOI Author Url

Tetteh KKA, Stewart LB, Ochola LI, Amambua-Ngwa A, Thomas AW, Marsh K, Weedall GD, Conway DJ. 2009. Prospective Identification of Malaria Parasite Genes under Balancing Selection PLOS ONE, 4 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Polley SD, Conway DJ. 2008. Gene-Specific Signatures of Elevated Non-Synonymous Substitution Rates Correlate Poorly across the Plasmodium Genus PLOS ONE, 3 DOI Author Url

Weedall GD, Preston BMJ, Thomas AW, Sutherland CJ, Conway DJ. 2007. Differential evidence of natural selection on two leading sporozoite stage malaria vaccine candidate antigens INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, 37 :77-85 DOI Author Url

Verra F, Chokejindachai W, Weedall GD, Polley SD, Mwangi TW, Marsh K, Conway DJ. 2006. Contrasting signatures of selection on the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen gene family MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARASITOLOGY, 149 :182-190 DOI Author Url

Polley SD, Weedall GD, Thomas AW, Golightly LM, Conway DJ. 2005. Orthologous gene sequences of merozoite surface protein 1(MSP1) from Plasmodium reichenowi and R. gallinaceum confirm an ancient divergence of P. falciparum alleles MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARASITOLOGY, 142 :25-31 DOI Author Url


Harb OS, Boehme U, Crouch K, Ifeonu OO, Roos DS, Silva JC, Silva-Franco F, Svärd S, Tretina K, Weedall G. 2016. Genomics Molecular Parasitology :3-48 Springer Vienna 9783709114155 DOI

Weedall GD. 2015. The genomics of entamoebae: Insights and challenges Amebiasis: Biology and Pathogenesis of Entamoeba :27-47 9784431551997 DOI

Conference publication

Weedall GD, Preston BM, Thomas AW, Sutherland CJ, Conway DJ. 2006. Differential evidence of natural selection on two leading sporozoite stage malaria vaccine candidate antigens AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 75 :65-65 Author Url