Liverpool Skylilne

Sport and Exercise Sciences

Prof Neil Walsh

Prof Neil Walsh

Telephone: 0151 904 1031

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Biography

Neil has recently joined the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Liverpool John Moores University. Prior to this he spent 19 years at Bangor University where his team has produced leading research on: nutritional strategies to avoid immune suppression and infection; practical strategies to acclimate to the heat; and, new techniques for non-invasive biomonitoring of athletes and soldiers. His team’s work has influenced UK military policy by showing the benefits of preventing nutritional deficits in soldiers for both immune health and physical performance. Neil has published widely in international journals, co-authored a textbook in Exercise Immunology and led a highly cited consensus statement on exercise and immunity in 2011. More recently, Neil has co-authored consensus statements on ‘dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete’ for the International Olympic Committee and ‘immunonutrition and exercise’ for the International Society of Exercise Immunology. He currently serves on the editorial board of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise and Exercise Immunology Review and has previously served as Physiology editor for Journal of Sports Sciences. Neil frequently provides education and training for staff at world-leading sports teams and organisations.

Degrees

2000, Birmingham University, United Kingdom, PhD

Academic appointments

Chair Physiology, School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, 2000 - 2019

Publications

Journal article

Kashi DS, Oliver SJ, Wentz LM, Roberts R, Carswell AT, Tang JCY, Jackson S, Izard RM, Allan D, Rhodes LE, Fraser WD, Greeves JP, Walsh NP. 2020. Vitamin D and the hepatitis B vaccine response: a prospective cohort study and a randomized, placebo-controlled oral vitamin D3 and simulated sunlight supplementation trial in healthy adults. European Journal of Nutrition, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Simpson RJ, Campbell JP, Gleeson M, Krüger K, Nieman DC, Pyne DB, Turner JE, Walsh NP. 2020. Can exercise affect immune function to increase susceptibility to infection? Exercise immunology review, 26 :8-22 Author Url Public Url

Walsh NP. 2019. Nutrition and Athlete Immune Health: New Perspectives on an Old Paradigm Sports Medicine, 49 :153-168 DOI Author Url Public Url

Zurawlew MJ, Mee JA, Walsh NP. 2019. Post-exercise Hot Water Immersion Elicits Heat Acclimation Adaptations That Are Retained for at Least Two Weeks Frontiers in Physiology, 10 :1080-1080 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Tang JCY, Jackson S, Walsh NP, Greeves J, Fraser WD, Bioanalytical Facility T. 2019. The dynamic relationships between the active and catabolic vitamin D metabolites, their ratios, and associations with PTH Scientific Reports, 9 :6974-6974 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Carswell AT, Oliver SJ, Wentz LM, Kashi DS, Roberts R, Tang JCY, Izard RM, Jackson S, Allan D, Rhodes LE, Fraser WD, Greeves JP, Walsh NP. 2018. Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Sunlight or Oral D3 on Exercise Performance Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50 :2555-2564 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Zurawlew MJ, Mee JA, Walsh NP. 2018. Post-exercise Hot Water Immersion Elicits Heat Acclimation Adaptations in Endurance Trained and Recreationally Active Individuals Frontiers in Physiology, 9 :1824-1824 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Kavazis AN, Quindry JC, Senchina DS, Nieman DC, Gleeson M, Pyne DB, Kitic CM, Close GL, Larson-Meyer DE, Marcos A, Meydani SN, Walsh NP, Nagatomi R. 2017. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev, 23 :8-50 Author Url Public Url

Zurawlew MJ, Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Potter C. 2016. Post-exercise hot water immersion induces heat acclimation and improves endurance exercise performance in the heat Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26 :745-754 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PA, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ, Dolci A, Rodriguez-Sanchez N, Galloway SD. 2016. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: development of a beverage hydration index American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103 :717-723 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Hanstock HG, Walsh NP, Edwards JP, Fortes MB, Cosby SL, Nugent A, Curran T, Coyle PV, Ward MD, Yong XH. 2016. Tear Fluid SIgA as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Mucosal Immunity and Common Cold Risk Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48 :569-577 DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Owen JA, Fortes MB, Rahman SU, Jibani M, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ. Hydration Marker Diagnostic Accuracy to Identify Mild Intracellular and Extracellular Dehydration Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, :1-23 DOI Author Url

O'Leary TJ, Izard RM, Walsh NP, Tang JCY, Fraser WD, Greeves JP. Skeletal macro- and microstructure adaptations in men undergoing arduous military training Bone, 125 :54-60 DOI Author Url

Jones AW, March DS, Thatcher R, Diment B, Walsh NP, Davison G. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on in vivo immunity following prolonged exercise: a randomised controlled trial Eur J Nutr, 58 :335-344 DOI Author Url

Hanstock HG, Edwards JP, Walsh NP. Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence Front Immunol, 10 :1178 DOI Author Url Public Url

Zurawlew MJ, Mee JA, Walsh NP. Heat Acclimation by Postexercise Hot-Water Immersion: Reduction of Thermal Strain During Morning and Afternoon Exercise-Heat Stress After Morning Hot-Water Immersion Int J Sports Physiol Perform, :1-6 DOI Author Url

Wentz LM, Ward MD, Potter C, Oliver SJ, Jackson S, Izard RM, Greeves JP, Walsh NP. Increased Risk of Upper Respiratory Infection in Military Recruits Who Report Sleeping Less Than 6 h per night Mil Med, 183 :e699-e704 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP. Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes Eur J Sport Sci, 18 :820-831 DOI Author Url

Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PAA, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ, Dolci A, Rodriguez-Sanchez N, Galloway SDR. Sucrose and Sodium but not Caffeine Content Influence the Retention of Beverages in Humans Under Euhydrated Conditions Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, :1-10 DOI Author Url

Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Peeling P, Phillips SM, Rawson ES, Walsh NP, Garthe I, Geyer H, Meeusen R, van Loon LJC, Shirreffs SM, Spriet LL, Stuart M, Vernec A, Currell K, Ali VM, Budgett RG, Ljungqvist A, Mountjoy M, Pitsiladis YP, Soligard T, Erdener U, Engebretsen L. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete Br J Sports Med, 52 :439-455 DOI Author Url

Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Peeling P, Phillips SM, Rawson ES, Walsh NP, Garthe I, Geyer H, Meeusen R, van Loon L, Shirreffs SM, Spriet LL, Stuart M, Vernec A, Currell K, Ali VM, Budgett RGM, Ljungqvist A, Mountjoy M, Pitsiladis Y, Soligard T, Erdener U, Engebretsen L. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 28 :104-125 DOI Author Url

Hanstock HG, Edwards JP, Roberts R, Walsh NP. High heart rate reactors display greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration following a novel acute stressor Biol Psychol, 133 :85-88 DOI Author Url

Edwards JP, Walsh NP, Diment PC, Roberts R. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise Exerc Immunol Rev, 24 :26-34 Author Url Public Url

Peake JM, Neubauer O, Walsh NP, Simpson RJ. Recovery of the immune system after exercise J Appl Physiol (1985), 122 :1077-1087 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Oliver SJ. Exercise, immune function and respiratory infection: An update on the influence of training and environmental stress Immunol Cell Biol, 94 :132-139 DOI Author Url

Oliver SJ, Brierley JL, Raymond-Barker PC, Dolci A, Walsh NP. Portable Prehospital Methods to Treat Near-Hypothermic Shivering Cold Casualties Wilderness Environ Med, 27 :125-130 DOI Author Url

He CS, Aw Yong XH, Walsh NP, Gleeson M. Is there an optimal vitamin D status for immunity in athletes and military personnel? Exerc Immunol Rev, 22 :42-64 Author Url

Davison G, Kehaya C, Diment BC, Walsh NP. Carbohydrate supplementation does not blunt the prolonged exercise-induced reduction of in vivo immunity Eur J Nutr, 55 :1583-1593 DOI Author Url

Armstrong LE, Kavouras SA, Walsh NP, Roberts WO. Diagnosing dehydration? Blend evidence with clinical observations Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 19 :434-438 DOI Author Url

Oliver SJ, Harper Smith AD, Costa RJ, Maassen N, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. Two nights of sleep deprivation with or without energy restriction does not impair the thermal response to cold Eur J Appl Physiol, 115 :2059-2068 DOI Author Url

Moore JP, Walsh NP, Zurawlew MJ. Daytime napping results in an underestimation of thermal strain during exercise in the heat Occup Environ Med, 72 :753 DOI Author Url

Hooper L, Abdelhamid A, Attreed NJ, Campbell WW, Channell AM, Chassagne P, Culp KR, Fletcher SJ, Fortes MB, Fuller N, Gaspar PM, Gilbert DJ, Heathcote AC, Kafri MW, Kajii F, Lindner G, Mack GW, Mentes JC, Merlani P, Needham RA, Olde Rikkert MG, Perren A, Powers J, Ranson SC, Ritz P, Rowat AM, Sjostrand F, Smith AC, Stookey JJ, Stotts NA, Thomas DR, Vivanti A, Wakefield BJ, Waldreus N, Walsh NP, Ward S, Potter JF, Hunter P. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people Cochrane Database Syst Rev, :CD009647 DOI Author Url

Hooper L, Abdelhamid A, Ali A, Bunn DK, Jennings A, John WG, Kerry S, Lindner G, Pfortmueller CA, Sjostrand F, Walsh NP, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Potter JF, Hunter PR, Shepstone L. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports BMJ Open, 5 :e008846 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Owen JA, Raymond-Barker P, Bishop C, Elghenzai S, Oliver SJ, Walsh NP. Is this elderly patient dehydrated? Diagnostic accuracy of hydration assessment using physical signs, urine, and saliva markers J Am Med Dir Assoc, 16 :221-228 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Owen JA, Oliver SJ, Walsh NP. Response to the Letter to the Editor by Aaron Spital, "Is This Elderly Patient Dehydrated? Diagnostic Accuracy of Hydration Assessment Using Physical Signs, Urine, and Saliva Markers" J Am Med Dir Assoc, 16 :709 DOI Author Url

Dolci A, Fortes MB, Walker FS, Haq A, Riddle T, Walsh NP. Repeated muscle damage blunts the increase in heat strain during subsequent exercise heat stress Eur J Appl Physiol, 115 :1577-1588 DOI Author Url

Diment BC, Fortes MB, Edwards JP, Hanstock HG, Ward MD, Dunstall HM, Friedmann PS, Walsh NP. Exercise Intensity and Duration Effects on In Vivo Immunity Med Sci Sports Exerc, 47 :1390-1398 DOI Author Url Public Url

Shing CM, Peake JM, Lim CL, Briskey D, Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Ahuja KD, Vitetta L. Effects of probiotics supplementation on gastrointestinal permeability, inflammation and exercise performance in the heat Eur J Appl Physiol, 114 :93-103 DOI Author Url

Ely BR, Cheuvront SN, Kenefick RW, Spitz MG, Heavens KR, Walsh NP, Sawka MN. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality Eur J Appl Physiol, 114 :85-92 DOI Author Url

Costa RJ, Crockford MJ, Moore JP, Walsh NP. Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition Eur J Sport Sci, 14 Suppl 1 :S131-S141 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Purslow C, Esmaeelpour M. Author response: is whole body hydration an important consideration in dry eye? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 54 :1713-1714 DOI Author Url

Oliver SJ, Macdonald JH, Harper Smith AD, Lawley JS, Gallagher CA, Di Felice U, Walsh NP. High altitude impairs in vivo immunity in humans High Alt Med Biol, 14 :144-149 DOI Author Url

Moore JP, Harper Smith AD, Di Felice U, Walsh NP. Three nights of sleep deprivation does not alter thermal strain during exercise in the heat Eur J Appl Physiol, 113 :2353-2360 DOI Author Url

Junglee NA, Di Felice U, Dolci A, Fortes MB, Jibani MM, Lemmey AB, Walsh NP, Macdonald JH. Exercising in a hot environment with muscle damage: effects on acute kidney injury biomarkers and kidney function Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 305 :F813-F820 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Di Felice U, Dolci A, Junglee NA, Crockford MJ, West L, Hillier-Smith R, Macdonald JH, Walsh NP. Muscle-damaging exercise increases heat strain during subsequent exercise heat stress Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45 :1915-1924 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Raymond-Barker P, Bishop C, Owen J, Tye E, Esmaeelpour M, Purslow C, Elghenzai S. Is whole-body hydration an important consideration in dry eye? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53 :6622-6627 DOI Author Url

Gleeson M, Walsh NP, British Association of S, Exercise S. The BASES expert statement on exercise, immunity, and infection J Sports Sci, 30 :321-324 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Diment BC, Di Felice U, Walsh NP. Dehydration decreases saliva antimicrobial proteins important for mucosal immunity Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37 :850-859 DOI Author Url

Diment BC, Fortes MB, Greeves JP, Casey A, Costa RJ, Walters R, Walsh NP. Effect of daily mixed nutritional supplementation on immune indices in soldiers undertaking an 8-week arduous training programme Eur J Appl Physiol, 112 :1411-1418 DOI Author Url

Costa RJ, Fortes MB, Richardson K, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. The effects of post-exercise feeding on saliva anti-microbial proteins Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, Author Url

Costa RJ, Fortes MB, Richardson K, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. The effects of postexercise feeding on saliva antimicrobial proteins Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22 :184-191 Author Url

Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, Gleeson M, Woods JA, Bishop NC, Fleshner M, Green C, Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L, Rogers CJ, Northoff H, Abbasi A, Simon P. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise Exerc Immunol Rev, 17 :6-63 Author Url

Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Pyne DB, Nieman DC, Dhabhar FS, Shephard RJ, Oliver SJ, Bermon S, Kajeniene A. Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health Exerc Immunol Rev, 17 :64-103 Author Url

Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Esmaeelpour M. Influence of modest changes in whole-body hydration on tear fluid osmolarity: important considerations for dry eye disease detection Cornea, 30 :1517 DOI Author Url

Harper Smith AD, Coakley SL, Ward MD, Macfarlane AW, Friedmann PS, Walsh NP. Exercise-induced stress inhibits both the induction and elicitation phases of in vivo T-cell-mediated immune responses in humans Brain Behav Immun, 25 :1136-1142 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Diment BC, Greeves JP, Casey A, Izard R, Walsh NP. Effects of a daily mixed nutritional supplement on physical performance, body composition, and circulating anabolic hormones during 8 weeks of arduous military training Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 36 :967-975 DOI Author Url

Fortes MB, Diment BC, Di Felice U, Gunn AE, Kendall JL, Esmaeelpour M, Walsh NP. Tear fluid osmolarity as a potential marker of hydration status Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43 :1590-1597 DOI Author Url

Costa RJ, Walters R, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. Effects of immediate postexercise carbohydrate ingestion with and without protein on neutrophil degranulation Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 21 :205-213 Author Url

Smith AD, Crabtree DR, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. The validity of wireless iButtons and thermistors for human skin temperature measurement Physiol Meas, 31 :95-114 DOI Author Url

Costa RJ, Smith AH, Oliver SJ, Walters R, Maassen N, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. The effects of two nights of sleep deprivation with or without energy restriction on immune indices at rest and in response to cold exposure Eur J Appl Physiol, 109 :417-428 DOI Author Url

Ricardo JS, Cartner L, Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Walters R, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. No effect of a 30-h period of sleep deprivation on leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil degranulation and saliva IgA responses to exercise Eur J Appl Physiol, 105 :499-504 DOI Author Url

Oliver SJ, Costa RJ, Laing SJ, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance Eur J Appl Physiol, 107 :155-161 DOI Author Url

Costa RJ, Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Waiters R, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. Influence of timing of postexercise carbohydrate-protein ingestion on selected immune indices Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 19 :366-384 Author Url

Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Wilson S, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. Saliva indices track hypohydration during 48h of fluid restriction or combined fluid and energy restriction Arch Oral Biol, 53 :975-980 DOI Author Url

Laing SJ, Oliver SJ, Wilson S, Walters R, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. Neutrophil-degranulation and lymphocyte-subset response after 48 hr of fluid and/or energy restriction Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 18 :443-456 Author Url

Laing SJ, Jackson AR, Walters R, Lloyd-Jones E, Whitham M, Maassen N, Walsh NP. Human blood neutrophil responses to prolonged exercise with and without a thermal clamp J Appl Physiol (1985), 104 :20-26 DOI Author Url

Whitham M, Laing SJ, Jackson A, Maassen N, Walsh NP. Effect of exercise with and without a thermal clamp on the plasma heat shock protein 72 response J Appl Physiol (1985), 103 :1251-1256 DOI Author Url

Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Wilson S, Bilzon JL, Walters R, Walsh NP. Salivary immunoglobulin A response at rest and after exercise following a 48 h period of fluid and/or energy restriction Br J Nutr, 97 :1109-1116 DOI Author Url

Whitham M, Laing SJ, Dorrington M, Walters R, Dunklin S, Bland D, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. The influence of an arduous military training program on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection incidence Mil Med, 171 :703-709 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Whitham M. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function? Sports Med, 36 :941-976 DOI Author Url

Laing SJ, Gwynne D, Blackwell J, Williams M, Walters R, Walsh NP. Salivary IgA response to prolonged exercise in a hot environment in trained cyclists Eur J Appl Physiol, 93 :665-671 DOI Author Url

Laing SJ, Blackwell J, Gwynne D, Walters R, Walsh NP. Neutrophil degranulation response to 2 hours of exercise in a 30 degrees C environment Aviat Space Environ Med, 76 :1068-1073 Author Url

Walsh NP, Montague JC, Callow N, Rowlands AV. Saliva flow rate, total protein concentration and osmolality as potential markers of whole body hydration status during progressive acute dehydration in humans Arch Oral Biol, 49 :149-154 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Laing SJ, Oliver SJ, Montague JC, Walters R, Bilzon JL. Saliva parameters as potential indices of hydration status during acute dehydration Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36 :1535-1542 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Scanlon GA, Walsh NP, McCallum LJ, Walker GJ. No effect of fluid intake on neutrophil responses to prolonged cycling J Sports Sci, 22 :1091-1098 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Bishop NC, Blackwell J, Wierzbicki SG, Montague JC. Salivary IgA response to prolonged exercise in a cold environment in trained cyclists Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34 :1632-1637 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Walsh NP, Haines DL, Richards EE, Gleeson M. Pre-exercise carbohydrate status and immune responses to prolonged cycling: II. Effect on plasma cytokine concentration Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 11 :503-512 Author Url

Bishop NC, Walsh NP, Haines DL, Richards EE, Gleeson M. Pre-exercise carbohydrate status and immune responses to prolonged cycling: I. Effect on neutrophil degranulation Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 11 :490-502 Author Url

Sollanek KJ, Kenefick RW, Walsh NP, Fortes MB, Esmaeelpour M, Cheuvront SN. Potential for non-invasive hydration assessment using ocular measures J Therm Biol, 37 :111-114

Oliver SJ, Laing SJ, Wilson S, Bilzon JL, Walsh N. Endurance running performance after 48 h of restricted fluid and/or energy intake Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39 :316-322 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Walsh N, Scanlon GA. Effect of prolonged exercise and carbohydrate on total neutrophil elastase content Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35 :1326-1332 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Gleeson M. Carbohydrate beverage ingestion and neutrophil degranulation responses following cycling to fatigue at 75% VO2 max Int J Sports Med, 22 :226-231 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Bishop NC, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. Effect of oral glutamine supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degranulation following prolonged exercise Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 10 :39-50 Author Url

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Clark AM, Cook L, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on saliva IgA, total protein and alpha-amylase J Sports Sci, 17 :129-134 DOI Author Url

Robson PJ, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Castell LM, Gleeson M. Effects of exercise intensity, duration and recovery on in vitro neutrophil function in male athletes Int J Sports Med, 20 :128-135 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. Nutritional aspects of immunosuppression in athletes Sports Med, 28 :151-176 DOI Author Url

Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Walsh NP, Gleeson M. The effects of carbohydrate supplementation on immune responses to a soccer-specific exercise protocol J Sports Sci, 17 :787-796 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Links and possible mechanisms Sports Med, 26 :177-191 DOI Author Url

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Clark AM, Cook L, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on the plasma concentrations of glutamine and organic acids Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 77 :434-438 DOI Author Url

Gleeson M, Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Cook L, Donnelly AE, Day SH. The effect of severe eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on plasma elastase, glutamine and zinc concentrations Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 77 :543-546 DOI Author Url

Gleeson M, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Field CN, Pritchard JC. Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on the blood lactate response to incremental exercise in humans Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 77 :292-295 DOI Author Url

Gleeson M, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Bishop NC, Clark AM. Effect of low- and high-carbohydrate diets on the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses to exercise Int J Sport Nutr, 8 :49-59 Author Url

Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Walsh NP, Clark AM, Glennon L, Gleeson M. The effect of exercising to exhaustion at different intensities on saliva immunoglobulin A, protein and electrolyte secretion Int J Sports Med, 19 :547-552 DOI Author Url