Dr Adam Snow

School of Law

I am a lecturer in the Law School and teach in the area of criminal law.

I obtained my PhD from Keele University in 2015 where I examined the use of out of court disposals. The study was funded by the Magistrates Association and Keele University and examined the use of on the spot fines / penalties for a variety of illegal behaviour, including; parking, speeding, illegal motoring, littering and minor disorder.

Since obtaining my PhD I have conducted a number of research projects for organisations in the field of road traffic regulation including the British Parking Association, the Traffic Penalty Tribunal, PATROL, and the RAC Foundation

One project for the Traffic Penalty Tribunal and PATROL, with colleagues from the University of Birmingham, examined the operation of the TPT's fast online appeals management system (FOAM). This was the first study of its kind to examine the digital courtroom in action in the UK.

I have also recently completed a research projects for the RAC Foundation examining the enforcement of road traffic laws with a special focus on automated means of capturing and processing wrongdoing.

Prior to completing my PhD I worked as a local government officer, in licensing and enforcement, for a west midlands local authority for 6 years. I obtained a Master’s Degree in Human Rights, Globalisation and Justice from Keele University in 2009 and Law Degree (First Class Honours) from Staffordshire University in 2003.

My research interests lie in the field of regulatory and administrative justice, with a special focus on road traffic regulation, parking regulation, crimes of the law abiding and the impacts of regulatory justice experiences of the criminal justice system. In particular, I am interested in how the law regulates ordinary behaviour in complex systems, principally relating to road traffic regulation.

I would welcome students wishing to conduct research in the field of road traffic law and regulation especially for those interested in the challenges of automation and controlling road, and parking, behaviour.


2016, Liverpool Hope University, UK, PGCert LTHE
2015, Keele University, UK, PhD
2009, Keele University, UK, MA
2004, Staffordshire University, UK, PG Dip. Legal Practice Course
2003, Staffordshire University, UK, LLB (Hons)

Academic appointments

Lecturer, Law School, Liverpool John Moores University, 2017 - present
Lecturer, Social Science, Liverpool Hope University, 2015 - 2017

Journal article

Snow A. 2022. Case Note - Driving and use of a handheld mobile phone device - Bendt v Crown Prosecution Service Administrative Court: Davis LJ and Knowles J: 25 January 2022; [2022] EWHC 502 (Admin) Criminal Law Review, Publisher Url Public Url

Lam D, Snow AJ. 2022. Speeding offence detection and disposal in England and Wales 2020 - 2021 RAC Foundation, Publisher Url Public Url

Snow A. 2022. Causing Serious Injury by Dangerous Driving: Time for a Sentencing Guideline? R v Allen [2021] EWCA Crim 1405 The Journal of Criminal Law, DOI Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Snow A. 2019. ‘Interactive Communication’ and Driving—Does It Matter Whether It Is a Mobile or Camera? Director of Public Prosecutions v Ramsey Barreto [2019] EWHC 2044 (Admin) The Journal of Criminal Law, 83 :425-429 DOI Publisher Url Public Url

Snow AJ. 2017. Receiving an on the spot penalty: A Tale of Morality, Common-sense and Law-abidance Criminology and Criminal Justice, 19 :141-159 DOI Publisher Url Public Url


Snow A, Lam D. 2019. Nearly 2.4 million speeding offences detected in 2018-19 in England and Wales Nearly 2.4 million speeding offences detected in 2018-19 in England and Wales Publisher Url

Nunn J, Snow A, Wells H. 2019. Public attitudes to compliance and enforcement in relation to driving offences Public attitudes to compliance and enforcement in relation to driving offences :1-28 Publisher Url

Snow AJ. 2019. Speed Offence Detection and Disposal in England and Wales Author Url Publisher Url Public Url

Snow AJ. 2017. A Preliminary Analysis of the Latest Statistics on Speed Limit Enforcement Publisher Url Public Url

Snow AJ. 2017. Automated Road Traffic Enforcement: Regulation, Governance and Use A review Publisher Url Public Url

Raine J, Snow AJ, Dunstan E. 2016. To Appeal or Not To Appeal? Motorists’ Awareness and Experience of The Traffic Penalty Tribunal. Publisher Url Public Url

Snow AJ. 2015. Researching the Research Publisher Url Public Url

Internet publication

Snow A. Transitioning to an E-scooter the safety concerns Author Url Publisher Url

Media Coverage:

https://www.policeoracle.com/news/GMP-and-Warwickshire-have-highest-number-of-cancelled-GATSO-fines-_108578.html, GMP and Warwickshire have the highest number of cancelled GATSO fines. 2022

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2022/02/09/police-drop-one-six-speeding-offences-faulty-cameras-suspicion/, /Daily Telegraph "Police drop one in six speeding offences with faulty cameras under suspicion". 2022

https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/uk-news/one-six-speeding-fines-england-23028156, Why one in six speeding ticket is cancelled - Walesonline. 2022

https://www.itv.com/news/2020-06-18/will-e-scooters-soon-be-allowed-on-public-roads/, Interview for ITV online news on the topic of E-Scooters.. 2020

https://news.sky.com/story/british-drivers-hit-with-a-penalty-charge-fine-every-25-seconds-11097512, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5014367/A-driver-receives-penalty-points-2-5-seconds.html, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/10/25/one-three-british-motorists-fined-every-year-experts-say-automation/, Automated Road Traffic Enforcement and Penalties, front page national news coverage and a range of local radio interviews.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000cmyr, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000clsz, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p07vnr7s, BBC Radio Coverage of RAC Foundation Report.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p065hp7w, Interview BBC Radio Merseyside, Drivetime, 18/05/2018 re Mersey Gatewqay Decision (Runcorn Bridge).

https://www.chesterchronicle.co.uk/news/chester-cheshire-news/huge-amount-made-mersey-gateway-14658682, Local news comment on Mersey Gateway.

https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/cars/1108642/speeding-ticket-fine-UK-most-likely-check, https://www.thesun.co.uk/motors/8771190/britains-regions-where-you-are-up-to-160-times-more-likely-to-be-caught-speeding/, https://www.autoexpress.co.uk/car-news/106468/speeding-offence-postcode-lottery-revealed-by-new-data, National News Media of RACF Foundation report into disparities in speeding enforcement.

https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/mersey-gateway-bridge-made-incredible-14656701, https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/five-questions-remain-after-crucial-14647812, https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/road-fines-expert-believes-hundreds-14645993, Newspaper Article on the Mersey Gateway Hearing.

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/drivers-face-postcode-lottery-for-speeding-fines-and-penalty-points-prkm8qzhc, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/pa/article-6871309/Regional-disparity-number-drivers-caught-speeding.html, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/03/31/four-speeding-drivers-caught-cameras-every-minute/, National News Paper.

Research Grants Awarded:

Gloucestershire Police, The ANPR Capability Project, TJA Associates, Grant value (£): 30,000, Duration of research project: 12 months. 2021

HIghways England, Public attitudes to compliance and enforcement in relation to driving offences, James Nunn, Loughborough University and Dr. Helen Wells, Keele University, Grant value (£): 4000. 2019

Conference presentation:

Road Policing- Where are we, Traffic offences - Transport Statistics User Group, TSUG Palestra, Southwark, London, Oral presentation. 2019

Procedural Fairness and Automated Justice, British Society of Criminology Annual Conference, Birmingham City University, Oral presentation. 2018

Perceptions of Parking: Simple, Swift, Speedy Justice?, Spotlight on Parking, Royal Society, Oral presentation. 2018

Industrial connections:

Alpha Parking, Spotlight on Parking Conference. 2018

Conference organisation:

Low Level Sanctions - British Society of Criminology North West Seminar Series, Organiser and Keynote speaker, https://www.hope.ac.uk/socialscience/social,science,research,seminar/. 2017

Membership of professional bodies:

Member of the British Society of Criminology, British Society of Criminology, http://www.britsoccrim.org/. 2017

Fellow, Higher Education Academy, https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/. 2016

Other invited event:

Chair Information - Public Policy Exchange Event on Assessing Local Parking Enforcement - 24.1.2017, Grange Wellington Hotel London, Chaired practitioner and academic one day conference including presenting a paper on procedural fairness and parking enforcement. 2017