Centre for the Study of Law in Theory and Practice (LTAP)

Building on our successful submission in the REF2014, LTAP is the home to the LJMU UOA Law in the REF2021.

LTAP promotes research-led teaching at LJMU and contributes to excellence in education through the development of our research staff and the creation of modules and curricula that reflect current legal practice. The Centre enhances the student experience of our postgraduate research students and our undergraduate and master’s students.

The legal education sector in the UK will face its most important reform in almost 30 years when the Solicitors Qualifying Exam (SQE) will be introduced in 2021. The SQE will lead to a complete change of the curricula and the teaching techniques in law. At this critical juncture for legal education in the UK, LTAP creates a hub for research in law which gives greater visibility and coherence to research in law at LJMU.

The Centre provides leadership, direction, coherence and focus to research activities in law across LJMU and enables diverse views within a community of peers including law academics and legal practitioners. LTAP encourages collaborations with relevant external stakeholders and organisations in the UK and overseas, with local authorities, law firms and the judiciary.

Areas of expertise

Faq Items


UK public law, comparative public law, EU law, public international law, human rights, animal law and legal history.

Read more about our Public area of expertise

Lead: Dr Gary Wilson.

Staff: Professor Carlo Panara; Dr Tasnim Ahmed; Dr Alice Diver; Dr Matilde Ventrella; Dr Julia Bradshaw; Dr Simon Brooman; Dr Sofia Cavandoli; Dr Lorie Charlesworth; Dr Bleddyn Davies; Thomas Phillips; Alexandra Pimor; Dr Rossella Pulvirenti.

PGRs: George Lamb (FT/LJMU scholarship); Paul French (PT); Muhammad Shaukat (FT); Liam Halewood (FT/LJMU scholarship).

Key research outputs:

J. Bradshaw, ‘Stateless in Europe’, in: N. Ferreira and D. Kostakopoulou (eds.), The Human Face of the European Union (CUP: 2016), pp. 260-90.

S. Brooman, 2017, ‘Creatures, the Academic Lawyer and a Socio-Legal Approach: Introducing Animal Law into the Legal Education Curriculum’, in: Liverpool Law Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 243-57.

S. Brooman. 2018. ‘Animal Sentience in UK Law: Does the new clause need claws?’ United Kingdom Journal of Animal Law 2: 1, 21-31.

S. Cavandoli (2016) ‘The unresolved dilemma of self-determination: Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk’, The Interna-tional Journal of Human Rights, 20:7, 875-892.

B. Davies, ‘Popular Participation and Legitimacy in constitutional Change: Finding the Sovereign’, (2015) 36(3) Liverpool Law Review 277.

B. Davies, ‘The EU Referendum: Who were the British People’ (2016) 3 King’s Law Journal 323.

A. Diver, ‘They Took Our Flag!’ Should Northern Ireland’s Decision-Makers View Mnemonic Heritage Emblems as ‘Cultural Easements’ in International Law? In: Macquarie Law Journal (2014) (13), pp. 79-97.

A. Diver, Putting Dignity to Bed? The Taxing Question of the UK’s Housing Rights ‘Relapse’, in: A. Diver (ed., with J. Miller), Justiciability of Human Rights in Domestic Jurisdictions (Springer: 2015).

J. Miller and A. Diver, Can Rights Be Ring-Fenced in Times of Austerity? Equality, Equity and Judicial ‘Trusteeship’ over the UK’s Fairness Agenda, in: A. Diver (ed., with J. Miller), Justiciability of Human Rights in Domestic Juris-dictions (Springer: 2015).

A. Diver, “That Vaulty Night”: Trials, Testimonies, and Critiques of Justice in Beckett’s Panopticon Prison-stage, in: Law, Culture and the Humanities, 2018.

C. Panara, ‘The Enforceability of Subsidiarity and the Ethos of Cooperative Federalism: A Comparative Law Perspective’, in: European Public Law, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2016, pp. 305-331 (ISSN:1354-3725).

C. Panara, ‘The Contribution of Local and Regional Authorities to a ‘Good’ System of Governance within the EU’, in: Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, Vol. 23, No. 4, July 2016, pp. 611-639 (ISSN: 1023263X).

C. Panara and M.R. Varney, Multi-level governance in the EU and EU democracy: Democratic legitimacy, demo-cratic accountability and transparency of the European offices of the English local authorities in Brussels, in Re-gional & Federal Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2017, pp. 153-70.

C. Panara, The ‘Europe with the Regions’ Before the Court of Justice, in: Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2019.

T. Phillips, ‘Democratic Confederalism in Syria: The Nation-State, the Kurds, and International Law’ in: E. Aktoprak & O. Akbulut (eds.), Minority Self-Government in Europe and the Middle East: From Theory to Practice (Brill, 2019).

T. Phillips, ‘The (In-)Validity of Turkey’s Reservation to Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ International Journal on Minority and Group Rights (forthcoming, 2019).

A. Pimor (2015). ‘The Unbearable Elusiveness of the European Union's Spiritual Heritage’, in: Journal for the Study of Spirituality, Vol. 5, No. 1.

A. Pimor (2017). ‘Solidarity was a founding principle of European unity - it must remain so’. In: The Conversation.

Pulvirenti, R., A New Settlement for the United Kingdom in the European Union: A New Challenge to EU Citizens’ Social Benefits and Freedom of Movement? In: European Papers, Vol. 1, 2016, No. 2, European Forum, Insight of 4 May 2016, pp. 727-740, ISSN 2499-8249 - doi: 10.15166/2499-8249/48.

Pulvirenti, R. and Abrusci, E. (2019). Prosecuting Trafficking Crimes for Sexual Exploitation in Times of Conflict: Challenges and Perspective. Journal of Trafficking and Human Exploitation, 9 (1), pp. 97-120. ISSN 2452-2775.

M. Ventrella, Recognising Effective Legal Protection to People Smuggled at Sea, by Reviewing the EU Legal Framework on Human Trafficking and Solidarity between Member States. Social Inclusion Vol. 3, 1, 2015, pp. 76-87.

M. Ventrella, Brexit and The Fight against Human Trafficking: Actual Situation and Future Uncertainty. Marmara Journal of European Studies 26 (1), 2018, pp. 119-142. ISSN 1301-1359.

M. Ventrella, The impact of Operation Sophia on the exercise of criminal jurisdiction against migrant smugglers and human traffickers. Questions of International Law, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 3-18.

M. Ventrella, Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots, by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe. Social Inclusion, Vol. 5 Issue 2, 2017, pp. 69-80.

G. Wilson, ‘Collective Security, ‘Threats to the Peace’, and the Ebola Outbreak’, in: Journal of the Philosophy of International Law, 2015, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp.1-18.

G. Wilson, Secession and Intervention in the Former Soviet Space: The Crimean Incident and Russian Interference in its ‘Near Abroad’, Liverpool Law Review, 2016, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp.153-175.

G. Wilson, Enhancing Diversity and Representation within the United Nations Security Council: The Dilemmas of Reform, International Politics, 2019, forthcoming (already published in the Online First form).


Banking regulation, financial law, corporate governance, company law, employment law and commercial law. Law and technology will also sit in this area.

Read more about our Business area of expertise

Lead: Dr Alison Lui.

Staff: Dr Chijioke Chika Chijioke-Oforji; Dr Blanca Mamutse; Andy Baker; Eric Baskind; Dr Francis Okanigbuan; Richard Ridyard; Laura Samaroo; Sarah Stirk; Dr Yinan Yin.

PGRs: Cletus Kadzirange (FT); Kinsha Ryanna Worme (FT); Jennifer Graham (FT).

Key research outputs:

Arsalidou D. and Lui A. 2018. Post Brexit Britain and the Pay Culture: Challenges and Opportunities. In: Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, 69 (2):107-12.

A. Baker, ‘Market Abuse and The Risk to the Financial Markets’, in: N. Ryder et al. (eds.), The Financial Crisis and White-Collar Crime - Legislative and Policy Responses A Critical Assessment (Routledge: 2017), Chapter 7.

C. Chijioke-Oforji and A. Vasani, Global Foreign Exchange: Cracking the Code'. In: Journal of International Banking and Regulation, Vol. 32, No. 8, 2017, pp. 358-66.

C. Chijioke-Oforji, Sovereign Wealth Funds and State-owned Enterprises as Claimants under International Invest-ment Agreements and ICSID, in: T. Mortimer and C. Nyombi (eds.), Rebalancing International Investment Agree-ments in Favour of Host States (Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Publishing: 2018).

A. Lui, ‘Financial stability and prudential regulation: A comparison between the regulators and central banks of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia and Germany’ (Routledge: 2016) ISBN 1138899976.

A. Lui, 2017, ‘The importance of whistle-blowers in uncovering misconduct in Potemkin villages’, in: Ryder N., Turksen U., Tucker J. (eds.), The Financial Crisis and White-Collar Crime - Legislative and Policy Responses (Routledge: 2017).

Lui A. and Lamb G. 2018. Artificial intelligence and augmented intelligence collaboration: Regaining trust and con-fidence in the financial sector. In: Information and Communications Technology Law.

B. Mamutse, ‘Environmental liabilities in insolvency – an area ripe for reform?’, in: International Journal of the Built Environment, 2016, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 243-68.

B. Mamutse, ‘Balancing unequal trading relationships: Transaction avoidance precepts as a route to a new end?’, in: Journal of Business Law, accepted and forthcoming in 2018.

B. Mamutse (2019). Refining the approach to small business liability for environmental damage. In: Environmental Liability – Law, Policy and Practice, 25 (2). ISSN 0966-2030.

F.A. Okanigbuan, Revisiting the Separability Doctrine and Parties’ Rights to Litigation in Commercial Transactions, in: International Company and Commercial Law Review, Vol. 26, No. 8, 2015, pp. 255-59.

F.A. Okanigbuan, Carriers’ Liability in Contracts for the Carriage of Goods by Sea: Is there a Justification for the Hamburg and Rotterdam Rules? In: Business Law Review, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2016.

F. Sethi, J. Parkes, E. Baskind, B. Paterson and A. O’Brien, ‘Restraint in mental health settings: is it time to declare a position?’, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2018), Page 1 of 5. 8.

S. Stirk, M. Aiello and M. Box, LJMU Case Study on how the creation of the new Leadership and Development Foundation Associate role demonstrates a pioneering approach to leadership development and change capability in Higher Education, Leadership Foundation for Higher Education, 2018.

Y. Yin, The United Kingdom Tonnage Tax Regime: Compatibility with Relevant European Union Tax Law and Policy, in: (edited book) Maritime Law in Motion (Springer: forthcoming probably in 2019).


Criminal law, criminal justice, criminology and policing.

Lead: Professor Lawrence Burke.

Staff: Dr Kate Bates; Dr Karen Corteen; Dr Noel Cross; Stephen Forster; Dr Helena Gosling; Dr Donna Halliday; Dr Daniel Marshall; Dr Matthew Millings; Dr Emma Murray; Ester Rago-nese; Dr Adam Snow; Dr Rachael Steele; Stuart Taylor.

PGRs: Duane Jenkins (FT); Justin Moorhead (PT); Adam Scott (FT/ex-GTA); Ian Whitfield (PT/Lecturer in Policing).

Key research outputs:

K. Bates (2014). ‘Empathy or entertainment? The form and function of violent crime in early-nineteenth-century broadsides’, in: Law, Crime & History, Vol.4, Issue 2, pp.1-27.

W.H. Beckett, S. Taylor, G. Barrett, J. Jamieson and L. Grindrod. 2017. ‘Propagating the Haze? Community and professional perceptions of cannabis cultivation and the impacts of prohibition’, in: International Journal of Drug Policy, 48: 72-80.

G. Buck, A. Lawrence and E. Ragonese, ‘Exploring Peer Mentoring as a Form of Innovative Practice with Young People at Risk of Child Sexual Exploitation’, British Journal of Social Work (2017), 1–19.

A. Carline, C. Gunby and S. Taylor. 2017. ‘Too Drunk to Consent? Exploring the Contestations and Disruptions in Male Focused Sexual Violence Prevention Interventions’, in: Social and Legal Studies.

L. Burke and S. Collett, Delivering Rehabilitation. The Politics, Governance and Control of Probation (Routledge: 2015).

L. Burke, M. Millings and G. Robinson. ‘Probation migration(s): Examining occupational culture in a turbulent field’, in: Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2016, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 192-208.

L. Burke, M. Millings and G. Robinson, Is constructive practice still possible in a competitive environment? Findings from a case study of a community rehabilitation company in England and Wales, in: P. Ugwudike, P. Raynor and J. Annison (eds.), Evidence-Based Skills in Criminal Justice (Policy Press: 2017), pp. 57-78.

L. Burke, S. Collett and F. McNeill, Reimagining Rehabilitation. Beyond the Individual (Routledge: 2019).

K. Corteen, (2018) ‘A Critical Criminology of Professional Wrestling and Sports Entertainment’, The Popular Culture Studies Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1.

K. Corteen, (2018) ‘In plain sight – examining the harms of professional wrestling as state-corporate crime’, in: Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp.46-59.

Corteen K. and Steele R. 2018. A Criminal Injustice System? Sex Offender Suspects and Defendants, in: Liverpool Law Review, Vol. 39, pp. 265-77.

Gosling, H. (2016) Payment by Results. Challenges and Conflicts for the Therapeutic Community. Criminology and Criminal Justice. 16 (5) Pp. 519 – 533.

H.J. Gosling, ‘A critical insight into practitioners’ lived experience of payment by results in the alcohol and drug treatment sector’, in: Critical Social Policy, 2017, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 1-18. ISSN 0261-0183.

Gosling, H. (2018) Recovery Capital. A framework for the contemporary Therapeutic Community. Therapeutic Communities: An International Journal of Therapeutic Communities.

Gunby C., Carline A., Taylor S. 2017. Location, Libation and Leisure: An examination of the use of licensed venues to help challenge sexual violence. Crime, Media, Culture 3: 315-333.

D. Halliday and N. Ferguson, (2016) ‘When Peace is Not Enough: The Flag Protests, The Politics of Identity & Belonging in East Belfast’, in: Irish Political Studies, 31, 525-540.

D. Halliday and N. Ferguson, (forthcoming 2018) ‘The Legacy of Conflict: Memory and Northern Ireland’s Post-Conflict Generation’, in: Journal of Culture and Psychology (accepted for publication).

Marshall, D.J. and Thomas, T. (2015) The disclosure of police-held ‘non-conviction information’ to employers. In-ternational Journal of Police Science & Management. 17(4): 237-245.

D.J. Marshall and T. Thomas, (2015) ‘Polygraphs and Sex Offenders: The truth is out there’, in: Probation Journal, 62(2), 128–139.

D.J. Marshall and T. Thomas, Privacy and Criminal Justice (Palgrave: 2017).

R. McGarry and E. Murray, ‘Beyond “Khaki Collar Crime”, in: A. Goldsmith and B. Wadham (eds.), Criminologies of the Military (Hart: 2018).

Millings, M., Burke, L. and Robinson, G. (2019) ‘Lost in Transition? The personal and professional challenges for probation leaders engaged in delivering public sector reform’, in: Probation Journal, Vol. 66 (1) pp. 60-76.

E. Murray, ‘The “Veteran Offender”: A Governmental Project in England and Wales’, in: R. McGarry and S. Walklate (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and War (Palgrave: 2016).

E. Murray and P. Taylor, ‘Soldiering by consent’ and military-civil relations: Military transition into the public space of policing, in: Illness, Crisis and Loss, 2019.

E. Murray, K. Davies and E. Gee, The Separate System? A Conversation on Collaborative Artistic Practice with Veterans-in-Prison, in: R. Lippens and E. Murray (eds.), Representing the Experience of War and Atrocity. Inter-disciplinary Explorations in Visual Criminology (Palgrave-Macmillan: 2019).

G. Robinson, L. Burke and M. Millings, (2016) ‘Criminal Justice Identities in Transition: The Case of Devolved Probation Services in England and Wales’, in: British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 56 (1), 161-179.

G. Robinson, L. Burke and M. Millings, (2017) ‘Probation, Privatisation and Legitimacy’, in: Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 56 (2), 137-157.

D.G. Scott and H.J. Gosling, (2016) ‘Before Prison, Instead of Prison, Better than Prison: Therapeutic Communities as an Abolitionist Real Utopia’, in: International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 52-66. ISSN 2202–8005.

A. Snow, (2017) ‘Automated Road Traffic Enforcement: Regulation, Governance and Use, A Review’, The RAC Foundation, London.

A. Snow (2017). ‘Receiving an on the spot penalty: A tale of morality, common sense and law-abidance’, in: Crim-inology and Criminal Justice, doi. 10.1177/1748895817738556.

R.H. Steele, (2016). ‘How offenders make decisions’, in: British Journal of Community Justice, Vol. 13(3), pp. 7-20.

Taylor S., Buchanan J., Ayres T.C. 2016. Prohibition, Privilege and the Drug Apartheid: The failure of drug policy reform to address the underlying fallacies of drug prohibition. Criminology and Criminal Justice 4 :452-469.

S. Taylor, L. Burke, M. Millings and E. Ragonese, ‘Transforming Rehabilitation during a penal crisis: a case study of Through the Gate services in a Resettlement Prison in England and Wales’, in: The European Journal of Proba-tion, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2017.

Wells, H. and Millings, M. (2018) ‘Scrutinising the appeal of volunteer Community Speedwatch to policing leaders in England and Wales: Resources, responsivity and responsibilisation’, in: Policing & Society.


Legal education, as well as research and scholarly activity relevant to legal practice.

Leads: Rachel Stalker and Professor Carlo Panara.

Staff: Caroline Chinn; Sarah De Los Rios; Anita Ellis; Fiona Fargher; Paul Fletcher; Catherine Hogan; Fleur Lawrence; James Mannouch; Peter McPartland; Sean Price; Leigh Roberts; Diane Roskin.


LTAP has a research culture that is rooted in collaboration with national and international partners. These include:

  • The Academic Association for Contemporary European Studies (UACES)
  • The British Association of Comparative Law (BACL)
  • The European Public Law Institute at The University of Hull
  • The Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence PRRIDE at Tubingen University, Germany
  • University of Verona Law School, Italy
  • The Society of Legal Scholars
  • The Howard League

Our postgraduate research students

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External partners

Professor Andras Jakab, Salzburg University, Austria
Professor Martin Nettesheim, Tubingen University, Germany
Professor Matteo Nicolini (University of Verona)

Contact us

If you’d like to ask a question or find out more information, please contact Professor Carlo Panara.

External advisors

  • Professor Elizabeth Smart (Sheffield Hallam University) / Area Practice
  • Professor Roger Evans (Emeritus Professor LJMU) / Area Criminal
  • Dr Demetra Arsalidou (University of Cardiff) / Area Business
  • Dr Michael Varney (University of Hull) / Area Public